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AP Biology, Chapter 1: Introduction to Biology

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Paul Osterman

on 3 March 2015

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Transcript of AP Biology, Chapter 1: Introduction to Biology

Big Ideas in Biology
Evolution Matters
Unifying Theme
Emergent Properties
As systems become more complex, new properties emerge.
EX: table salt
EX: atoms --> molecules --> organelles --> cells
EX: LIFE!!!
Systems approach vs. Reductionism
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Energy Matters
Energy flows in one direction
Matter is recycled
Structure and Function
are Related
DNA is life.
DNA --> Genes --> Nucleotides
Gene to protein
Feedback Loops
Regulate Biological Systems
Negative Feedback
maintains homeostasis
end product slows process (usually inhibiting enzyme earlier in process)
most feedback loops
EX: blood sugar, body temp.
Positive Feedback
drives the body toward some resolution.
end product speeds up its own production (usually stimulating enzyme earlier in process)
EX: oxytocin and childbirth
estradiol and ovulation
Evolution Explains How All Life is Related.
The Domain Concept
3 domains
(Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya)
Unity in the Diversity of Life
Similarities underlie differences b/w species.
Evolution by variation on original design.
It's Natural... Selection.
Darwin's Big Ideas:
Descent w/ Modification
Natural Selection
Tree of Life
The adaptive radiation of Galapagos Finches and the problem with red pandas.
Inquiry
The Myth of
the Scientific Method
Hypotheses
Snakebitten
Limits on Science
Theories and Models
Most important is gaining knowledge.
Often, process is not linear. (ask Edison)
EX: Cancer stem cells
tentative explanation
specific, testable, falsifiable
If IV, then DV
"The affect of ___ on ____."
Deductive reasoning. (if certain premises hold true, then specific outcomes occur.
null vs. alternative
Test does not falsify hypothesis
Test falsifies hypothesis
Test prediction
Test prediction
Prediction:
Replacing bulb
will fix problem
Prediction:
Replacing batteries
will fix problem
Hypothesis #2:
Burnt-out bulb
Hypothesis #1:
Dead batteries
Question
Observations
Overlapping ranges of
scarlet kingsnake and
eastern coral snake
Range of scarlet
kingsnake only
Eastern coral snake (poisonous)
Scarlet kingsnake (nonpoisonous)
Scarlet kingsnake (nonpoisonous)
Key
North Carolina
South Carolina
RESULTS
0
20
40
60
80
100
Percent of total attacks
on artificial snakes
Coral snakes
present
Coral snakes
absent
16%
17%
84%
83%
Brown
artificial snakes
Artificial kingsnakes
A controlled experiment compares an experimental group (the artificial kingsnakes) with a control group (the artificial brown snakes)

Ideally, only the variable of interest (the color pattern of the artificial snakes) differs between the control and experimental groups

A controlled experiment means that control groups are used to cancel the effects of unwanted variables

A controlled experiment does not mean that all unwanted variables are kept constant
Designing Controlled Experiments
Results must be observable and repeatable
Ideas can never be proven, only disproved.
Supernatural explanations are outside the realm of science.
Ideas that have been tested repeatedly.
Can be used to make accurate predictions.
Models allow us to test ideas.
Kingdom Animalia
Kingdom
Plantae
Kingdom Fungi
Protists
(c) DOMAIN EUKARYA
(b) DOMAIN ARCHAEA
(a) DOMAIN BACTERIA
The Three Domains of Life
The question of the red panda.
Cactus-flower-eaters
Seed-eaters
Ground finches
Large ground finch
Geospiza magnirostris
Medium ground finch
Geospiza fortis
Small ground finch
Geospiza fuliginosa
Cactus ground finch
Geospiza scandens
Large cactus
ground finch
Geospiza conirostris
Small tree finch Camarhynchus parvulus
Large tree finch Camarhynchus psittacula
Medium tree finch Camarhynchus pauper
Woodpecker finch Cactospiza pallida
Mangrove finch Cactospiza heliobates
Vegetarian finch Platyspiza crassirostris
Sharp-beaked
ground finch Geospiza difficilis
Gray warbler finch Certhidea fusca
Green warbler finch Certhidea olivacea
Tree finches
Insect-eaters
Bud-eater
Seed-eater
Insect-eaters
Warbler finches
COMMON
ANCESTOR
Cross section of a cilium, as viewed
with an electron microscope
Cilia of
windpipe
cells
Cilia of
Paramecium
Biology!
Chapter 1

Any Questions?
A. Cells in the intestinal lining of vertebrates have
many small projections that increase the
surface area for absorption of nutrients.
B. Plants that live in dry areas have large roots for
absorbing water.
C. Seeds that are dispersed by wind are very light.
D. Fish that swim rapidly have bodies that are
streamlined.
E. Moles have large front paws for digging.

Form and Function
The idea that form and function are related would not be exemplified by which of the following examples?
A. As carbon dioxide levels rise in the blood of a
mammal, the rate of breathing increases,
leading to a decrease in blood levels of carbon dioxide.
B. As global temperatures rise, more ice melts, leading to
greater planetary absorption of sunlight and additional
temperature increase.
C. The speed of a racehorse decreases after running a mile.
D. The metabolic rate and energy consumption of grizzly
bears decreases during hibernation.
E. Frog eggs hatch after five days of development at 28
degrees C but after 10 days of development at 23
degrees C.

Negative Feedback
Which of the following examples would represent negative feedback?
A. vegetarian tree finch (Platyspiza crassirostris)
and mangrove finch (Cactospiza heliobates)
B. medium tree finch (Camarhynchus pauper)
and large tree finch (Camarhynchus psittacula)
C. large tree finch (Camarhynchus psittacula) and
small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus)
D. sharp-beaked ground finch (Geospiza difficilis)
and large ground finch (Geospiza magnirostris)
E. No such predictions are possible.

Tree of Life
Examine Fig. 1.22 in the textbook and predict which species pair has the most similar DNA sequence.
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