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Elements and Principles of Design

IED
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Cooper Howard

on 7 November 2012

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Transcript of Elements and Principles of Design

Template by Missing Link
Images from Shutterstock.com Visual and physical balance
The distribution of elements within a design
Types
Symmetrical (formal)
Asymmetrical (informal)
Radial Balance Shape Types
Vertical - Represents dignity, formality, stability, and strength
Horizontal - Represents calm, peace, and relaxation
Diagonal - Represents action, activity, excitement, and movement
Curved - Represents freedom, the natural, having the appearance of softness, and creates a soothing feeling or mood Line Elements and Principles of Design Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. Economy Use of the bare minimum of elements
Can be achieved by removing extraneous elements
In simplicity there is beauty
Less is more The repeated element becomes closer or further apart Microsoft Office clipart Microsoft Office clipart Graduated Rhythm Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. Contrast Can be used to emphasize an element of a design Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. Allows us to perceive shapes and the illusion of 3D objects on a 2D surface Value Shape
Form
Space
Texture Point
Line
Color
Value Eight integral components used in the creation of a design: Visual Design Elements The repetition of the element is random or situated at irregular intervals Microsoft Office clipart Microsoft Office clipart Random Rhythm Microsoft Office clipart Microsoft Office clipart Regular Rhythm An element is repeated at the same repetition/interval Microsoft Office clipart Rhythm Repeated use of line, shape, color, texture or pattern
A harmonious pattern or sequence
Types
Regular
Random
Gradated
Graduated ©iStockphoto.com Microsoft clipart Emphasis Microsoft Office clipart Wikipedia.org Emphasis Used to draw attention to one area
Focal Point – feature in a design that attracts the eye
Can be achieved through
Size
Placement
Shape
Contrast
Use of lines Proportion
Unity
Economy Balance
Emphasis
Contrast
Rhythm Many principles add to an interesting design Principles of Design Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. The surface look or feel
Types
Smooth
Reflects more light
More intense color
Rough
Absorbs more light
Appears darker Texture Microsoft clipart Evident in images with depth
Types
Open, uncluttered
Cramped, busy Space Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. A 3D volume or solid
Often implied on a 2D surface by careful use of value Form Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. Warm Colors
Reds, oranges, yellows Color Temperature Cool Colors
Blues, purples, greens Microsoft Office clipart Microsoft Office clipart Microsoft Office clipart Proportion Comparative relationship between elements in a design with respect to size
Scale – The proportion or size of an element in relation to the other elements Dresden Frauenkirche
Dresden, Germay Microsoft Office clipart Microsoft clipart Distribution of components in a circular pattern around a center point Radial Balance Microsoft Office clipart Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. The elements within the design are not identical but are arranged to provide a balanced visual weight Asymmetrical (Informal) Balance Ancient Egyptian Pyramids Microsoft clipart Oriental Pearl Tower Shanghai
Architect: Jiang Huan Cheng, Shanghai Modern Architectural Design, Co. ©iStockphoto.com Form Described by a number of qualities
Hue: base color (e.g., red)

Value: lightness or darkness

Saturation: purity or intensity relative to gray Color Horizontal lines represent calm, peace, and relaxation Wikimedia.org Community Christian Church
Kansas City, MO
Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright, 1940 Microsoft Office clipart Horizontal Lines Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. Economy Microsoft Office clipart ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com Unity The consistent use of design elements Microsoft Office clipart Relative lightness or darkness of a color, object, or shape Value Microsoft Office clipart Microsoft Office clipart Color has an immediate and profound effect on a design Color Diagonal lines give the sense of movement, action, and activity. ©iStockphoto.com Microsoft Office clipart Microsoft Office clipart Diagonal Lines Vertical lines characterize dignity, formality, stability, and strength The Empire State Building
Architect: Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon Brandenburg Gate
Berlin Microsoft Office clipart Skyscraper
Madrid, Spain Vertical Lines Microsoft Office clipart Microsoft Office clipart Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. Has only a length dimension
Can be used to
Define a boundary
Indicate volume
Create perspective and depth
Create textures and patterns
Suggest movement
Imply emotion Line Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. Most basic element of design
Has position but no dimension
Can be described by coordinates on a plane
Used to indicate a location Point Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. ©iStockphoto.com Microsoft Office clipart Contrast The degree of relative difference between elements ©iStockphoto.com Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. Areas between and around parts of an image or the implied depth in that image
Types
Positive
Negative Space Curved lines give the sense of freedom and a soothing mood ©iStockphoto.com Microsoft Office clipart Microsoft Office clipart Sydney Opera House
Jorn Utzon ©iStockphoto.com Curved Lines The repeated element is identical with the exception of one detail increasing or decreasing gradually with each repetition Microsoft Office clipart Right: The Chinese Tower English Gardens
Munich, Germany Microsoft Office clipart Left: Stack of rocks used as focal point in landscaping www.wikimedia.org Gradated Rhythm Microsoft Office clipart ©iStockphoto.com Microsoft clipart ©iStockphoto.com The Taj Mahal Mausoleum
Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India The elements within the design are identical in visual weight in relation to a centerline or axis Symmetrical (Formal) Balance Exterior metal façade of Disney Concert Hall
Los Angeles ©iStockphoto.com Smooth Microsoft clipart Fluffy Rough Park Guell – Barcelona, Spain Architect: Antonio Gaudí ©iStockphoto.com Texture Organic Mechanical Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. Geometric Microsoft clipart Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc. A 2D area enclosed by lines or curves
Types
Geometric: square, circle, triangle
Mechanical: simple shapes made of straight and curved lines
Organic: natural or simulating nature Shape
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