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Transcript of Gondwana Rainforests
for tourism will also increase the amount of infrastructure built in the area leading to deforestation, development by private enterprise and pollution.
Another impact is deforestation throughout Australia. Rainforests are being cut down, one of which is the Gondwana Rainforests. By different methods and for different reasons, people in this continent are cutting down, burning, or otherwise damaging the forests today causing the extinction of many species and changes in our global climate . An example of a recent extinct species might be the Bettongia penicillata, also known as the Brush-tailed Bettong. If the world continues at the current rate of deforestation, the rainforests of the world will perish within 100 years causing effects to the global climate and the elimination of the majority of plant and animal species.
The Gondwana Rainforests experience natural and human induced changes which affect individual species, habitats and the climate. An estimated 2 million people a year visit The Gondwana Rainforests. Before European settlement, these rainforests were probably the most extensive rainforests in Australia. Today, only the Lamington National Park has the largest remaining area of subtropical rainforest in the Gondwana Rainforests.
That's not enough!
The Gondwana Rainforests of Australia, also known as the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves, stretch from Queensland to New South Wales as shown in the map on the right. The rainforest includes large areas of warm temperate rainforest and just about all of the Antarctic beech cool temperate rainforest covering approximately 3700km².
The key abiotic components affecting living organisms of the Gondwana Rainforests include temperature, wind, humidity, precipitation and soil. Lets take a quick look...
The Gondwana Rainforests are home to a wide range of species forming the ecosystem; these vary from birds, invertebrates, mammals and reptiles
The species mentioned all have interrelationships with one another within the ecosystem.
What can we do?
My poem can help you guys...
How do these interrelationships
Responses to Changes
What are the responses of the living organisms after changes?
Check out this video...
Can these interrelationships be affected by changes??
by Elishbah Amer
The Gondwana Rainforests of Australia
...The number of visitors to the Gondwana rainforest reserves in New South Wales and Queensland is about 2 million per year. It is known to be one of the most widespread areas of subtropical rainforests in the world.
Map of Area
Stretches from Queensland to New South Wales
The average high temperature being 72.7°F and the average low temperature being 52.5°F.
The Gondwana Rainforests generally lie on the subtropical high pressure belt meaning that the air is stable, and there is usually slight rainfall.
The annual average morning relative humidity being 75% and the evening relative humidity being 65%.
Consisting mainly of rainfall and is highest during the winter months of December, January and February
Acidic, nutrient poor and unfertile soil
The Superb lyrebird (Menura novaehollandiae): its prey are usually worms, spiders, beetles, etc.
The Rufous scrub-bird (Atrichornis rufescens): having the same prey as The Superb Lyrebird and any other bird.
The Superb Lyrebird
Fresh-water crays (Euastacus jagara): prey upon shrimp pellets, gold fish and minnows, all able to be captured by their claws.
Velvet worms (Onychophora): prey upon smaller animals such as insects.
The Richmond River Birdwing Butterfly (Ornithoptera richmondia): feeds on Pararistolochia or Aristolochia vines.
Others include Glow-worms (Lampyridae), Land snails (Noctepuna mayana) and Funnel-web spiders (Hexathelidae).
Parma wallaby (Macropus parma): eats varieties of fungi, above-ground mushrooms and truffle-like species.
The Yellow-bellied glider (Petaurus australis): prey varies from eucalyptus trees, nectar, pollen and insects.
The Golden-Tipped bat (Phoniscus papuensis) and feeds on spiders, beetles and moths.
Side-neck turtles (Pleurodira): feeds on earthworms and small fishes.
The Leaf-tailed gecko (Phyllurus platurus): its preys include spiders, insects and worms.
Pouched frogs (Assa darlingtoni) eat flies, moths, insects, and spiders
The Monkey Puzzle Tree (Araucaria araucana): can grow a height of 60 meters and can live for more than 1800 years.
Hoop pine (Flindersia australis): can live up to 450 years and grow to a height of 60 metres.
Lacebark (Brachychiton discolor):measures up to 30 meters and lives up to 300 years
Hoop Pine Tree
Can you name any species that would fit in this food web?
These interrelationships maintain balance in order to connect all species with their need for energy. These interactions keep population numbers in check. Animals receive chemical energy from the food they eat (plants and/or other prey) and producers receive their energy from sunlight. A constant cycle of matter is also needed because matter traps energy and transports it within the organism or to another organism. This matter is also known as food, containing energy. Energy must constantly enter a community, beginning with photosynthesis, or the community will perish. This is how the interrelationships maintain balance within the Gondwana Rainforests
The reason to why the Gondwana Rainforests' remaining area has decreased in time is due to tourism. As mentioned before, around 2 million people visit the rainforest every year which means thousands of buses, 4WD’s, and passenger cars drive through the rainforest. Tourism is arguably the most harmful environmental threat to Gondwana’s vulnerability as it also introduces foreign species altering interrelationships.
Deforestation also contributes to global climate change. This is because trees in the rainforest release oxygen; they also absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide gas during photosynthesis. This helps to remove the carbon dioxide by humans when burning coal and oil. When fewer trees are available to take in amounts of CO2, the temperature increases causing great damage to all living things
Mining clears the forest to build roads and dig mines. Mining not only causes habitat loss but also releases harmful chemicals, which are consumed by organisms altering the food chain’s structure
Introduction of new species
The introduction of new animals and plants has affected the food interrelationships between species due to tourism. The introduced species compete for space, sunlight and energy, making it difficult for important native flora to flourish, changing the food chain’s structure. This would cause birds (such as The Superb lyrebird) to feed on other plants that might belong to a different species, minimizing the amount of food/plants in the rainforest.
Small areas for a few species survive at 5 °C but the entire ranges of all 65 species are gone at 7 °C. The Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Rainforest Ecology predicts that even a 1 °C increase will cause significant declines in range size in almost every species of the Gondwana Rainforests
Decrease of biodiversity of species as climate increases:
Why hello there young ones,
Today you will be learning tons!
Rainforests are disappearing very quickly,
And soon you shall be extremely guilty.
Gondwana is one of those lovely rainforests,
Make sure you don’t leave it the poorest.
People will have to work together,
In order to keep our rainforests better.
Teach others about the importance of the environment,
Or just ignore Mother Nature’s cries of embarrassment.
Plant trees on land where forests have been cut down.
So where you live won’t look like a lifeless, dead town.
Establish parks to protect rainforests and wildlife,
Then enjoy your time with your kids and your mild wife.
So from now on consider your surroundings,
And your heart shall stop gravely pounding.
I hope you’ve learned a worthy lesson,
And most probably paid some attention!
To this, the ecosystem tends to have responses to such changes. These responses are varied, and range from population decline to adaptation and development of new behavioral strategies. Whereas some species rely heavily on intact primary forests, others can adapt to secondary forests and forest-agriculture mosaics. Habitat change has been shown to affect many aspects of the ecology and behavior of animals. Changes in dietary composition and diversity, population density, group size and adult gender ratio are some examples.
What are some possible strategies for minimizing the impact of changes in the Gondwana Rainforests?
Have a go..
1) Teach others about the importance of the environment and how they can help save the Gondwana Rainforests. This increases the chances of protecting these rainforests by spreading the fact around the world.
2) Plant trees on land where forests have been cut down to restore the rainforests.
3) Establish parks to protect rainforests and wildlife.
4) Support companies and environmental organizations that operate in ways that minimize damage to the environment. Many of these groups already have developed action plans for saving the environment.
5) Use less paper and re-using or recycling paper instead of throwing it out.
As a world community, it is important not to destroy the resources that people will need in the future
THANK YOU FOR WATCHING