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Copy of Copy of Historical Development of Nursing Timeline
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Historical Development of Nursing Timeline
Theoretical Foundations of Practice
Instructor: Wanda Dooley Pathway of Nursing Theory Introduction Influences on Nursing Science
of Other Disciplines
“Practice is based on the theories of the discipline that are validated through research” (George, 2011, p. 7). Theory is an essential aspect of past, present, and future nursing practice. Studying the past enables the present foundation to be solid and the future to stronger. The purpose of this presentation is to delineate the historical development of nursing science, explain the relationship between nursing science and nursing profession, and include influences on nursing science of other disciplines. Nursing theory began with work from Florence Nightingale in the 1850s. “Nightingale’s (1859/1992) Notes on Nursing presents the first nursing theory that focuses on the manipulation of the environment for the benefit of the patient” (George, 2011, p. 11).
The 1950’s germinated theoretical conceptualization of nursing science by Columbia University Teaching College graduates. These nurse theorists include Peplau (1952/1988), Henderson (Harmer & Henderson, 1955), Hall (1959), and Abdellah (Abdellah, Beland, Martin, & Metheney, 1960).(George, 2011, p. 9).
"In the 1960s the focus of theoretical thinking in nursing moved from a problem/need and functional role focus to the relationship between the nurse and the patient" (George, 2011, p. 9).
The 1970s introduced the use of nursing theory to nursing education. “In the mid-1970s, the National League for Nursing (NLN) required schools of nursing to select, develop, and implement a conceptual framework for the curricula as an accreditation standard” (George, 2011, p. 10).
The 1980s was a decade of revision and expansion to existing nursing theories.”In addition, the works of Johnson, Benner, Parse, Leininger, Meleis, Pender, Riehl-Sisca, and Erickson, Tomlin, and Swain were added to the body of theoretical thought in nursing” (George, 2011, p. 11). Nursing is a discipline and a profession. Nursing science is a facet of nursing discipline. “As a discipline, nursing is a unity of science, art, and ethics” (George, 2011, p. 643). Nursing science is the knowledge base nurses employ to carry out the function of nursing. Where as, "the profession of nursing is based on understanding the social need from which the call for nursing originates and the body of knowledge that is used in creating the response known as nursing. Professions are based in everyday human experiences and responses to one another” (George, 2011, p. 643). The profession of nursing is the utilization of that knowledge, science, to react to the particular needs of people. The relationship is symbiotic. Nursing science fuels the nursing profession by supply of knowledge, while the nursing profession challenges nursing science to expand on current knowledge to better care for people. Historical Development of Nursing Science Reference Burns, N., & Grove, S. (2011). Understanding Nursing Research Building An Evidence-Based Practice (5th ed.). [Adobe Digital Editions version]. http://dx.doi.org/1000-0001-6695-000FCAD8
George, J. B. (2011). Nursing Theories the Base for Professional Nursing Practice (6th ed.). [Adobe Digital Editions]. Retrieved from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/DownloadFulfillment.aspx Conclusion Relationship Between Nursing Science
and the Nursing Profession Historical Development of Nursing Science
Continued The 1990s were noted to be the production of middle range theories that directed nursing practice. “The circle of theory-research-practice provides the base for evidence-based practice and best practices in clinical nursing. Another landmark or milestone of the 1990s is the internationalization of the nursing theory movement, as evidenced by international conferences and theoretical publications” (George, 2011, p. 11-12).
“The early part of the 21st century nursing theory is characterized by diversity. After decades of struggling with questions about how and what theories could or should guide the discipline of nursing, diversity of theoretical thought is now both accepted and embraced (George, 2011, p. 12).
Present day nursing theory has continued to develop and aid in best evidence based practice.
“Theory is essential since it is the initial inspiration for developing a study and links the study findings back to the knowledge of the discipline” (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 248).
Nursing theory will continue to transcend and expand the profession of nursing to reflect the influence of the past and the needs of the future. In 1940 Dr. Madeleine M. Leininger built her theory of transcultural nursing. “Dr. Leininger drew upon anthropology for the culture component and upon nursing for the care component” (George, 2011, p. 406).
In the 1950s Virginia Henderson identified 14 components of care. “In viewing the concept of the human or individual, Henderson considered the biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual components” (George, 2011, p. 91).
“Since the early 1980s, studies about Rosemarie Rizzo Parse’s theory have been conducted using research methods borrowed from the social sciences (descriptive), psychology (van Kaam and Giorgi modifications), and anthropology (ethnography)” (George, 2011, p. 496).
“To be complete in modeling the client’s world, the nurse must draw on many theories in other disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, cultural anthropology, physiology, and pathophysiology” (George, 2011, p. 536). Nursing utilizes a holistic approach to caring for people. Thus the integration of many disciplines is necessary to nursing science. “Nursing theories have developed from the choices and assumptions about the nature of what a particular theorist believes about nursing, what the basis of nursing knowledge is, and what nurses do or how they practice in the real world” (George, 2011, p. 1). Understanding the historical development of nursing science from theorists such as Florence Nightingale, Virginia Henderson, Dr. Madeleine Leininger, and Rosemarie Parse enable nurses to build a foundation for which present day nursing was built. Distinguishing the difference between nursing science and the nursing profession enables nurses to understand the symbiotic relationship that each share with one another. This relationship expands the dynamics of nursing to employ ancillary disciplines such as philosophy, religion, education, anthropology, social sciences, and psychology. Dr. William K. Cody states, “The discipline of nursing requires knowledge and methods other than nursing science, but nursing science is the essence of nursing as a scholarly discipline; without it, there would be no nursing, only care” (George, 2011, p. 2).