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Neologisms in modern English
Transcript of Neologisms in modern English
Types of neologisms
Ways of creation
Examples of loan words in English include: café (from French café ‘coffee’), bazaar (from Persian bāzār ‘market’), and kindergarten (from German Kindergarten ‘children’s garden’). The word loanword is itself a calque of the German term Lehnwort, while the term calque is a loanword from French.
Neologisms in modern English
[ niˈɒlədʒɪzəms ]
- are units that appear in the language after some time line taken as the original. Simply put, we can call them 'new-created words'.
Actuality of the topic
Given the active and super-fast pace enrichment of English neologisms, studying their functioning is important and timely due to the constant technological progress.
The subject of study
examined the challenges innovative linguistic units of scientific-technical areas of modern English.
is to disclosing the major sources and methods of presentation neologisms in the public life, politics, science, culture, and the disclosure of new technologies in the media, thus full lexicalization neologisms.
Phonological neologisms are formed by combining unique sounds, they are called artificial, e.g. rah-rah /a short skirt which is worn by girls during parades/, yeck/yuck which are interjections to express repulsion produced the adjective yucky/yecky. These are strong neologisms.
A loanword (or loan word or loan-word) is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language without translation. It is distinguished from a calque, or loan translation, where a meaning or idiom from another language is translated into existing words or roots of the host language.
Strong neologisms also include phonetic borrowings, such as perestroika/ Russian/, solidarnost /Polish, Berufsverbot German/, dolce vita /Italian/ etc.
Syntactical neologisms are usually built on patterns existing in the language, therefore they do not belong to the group of strong neologisms.
Syntactic neologisms - can be:
phraseological (word combinations)
morphological (formed by means of affixation, conversion, clipping, lexicalization, compounding)
Neologisms division into groups as a result of technological progress and social and political life
The development of computer technology
The development of astronautics
The development of culture
The development of education
Changes of activity of human experience leads to new and expanding old fragments world view, which in turn require fixation on "language" map. World view is changing, there are new sectors: space, computer technology, genetic engineering, drug addiction, new types of food, new types of protest. The traditional sectors are expanding: sector diseases, drugs, diagnostics.
Of course, language enrichment with new lexical units of any type and structure of a positive trend in the development and improvement of language and linguistic resources. It is the emergence of neologisms what shows the development of society and humanity in general.
Thank you for attention.
I investigated the "The Longman register of new words" J. Ayto (1190 words). The study was conducted in two aspects:
• formation of new lexical items (1st table);
• area of neologism's use (2nd table).
All these 11 groups have different models by which they are formed.
--> compound nouns --> 'ADJ + NUM' (adjective+number): 'high-five'.
--> 'vid' (from 'video'); 'hood' (from 'neighborhood'); 'mersh' (from 'commercial').
--> 'woopie' (well-off older person); 'nilky' (no income lots of kids).
--> 'actressocracy' (actress + aristocracy).
--> compound verbs --> N + V (noun+verb): "chain-chew" , "end-stop", "name-check".
formation of new lexical items
area of neologism's use