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Fascism in Europe

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Carolyn Bossmann

on 26 April 2010

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Transcript of Fascism in Europe

Fascism came about as a result of the economic and political devastation in the years after World War I. Fascism was the philosophy of a government that stresses the importance of a state, undoubted obedience to its leader, and the harsh suppression of any that disobeyed or disagreed. (1) Fascism hasn’t always been easy to classify though, because fascists seem to shift in their views a lot. In hope of achieving whatever it is that they want to achieve, historical fascist have been known to sway from the left side to the right side of the political spectrum, according to what is needed for the given purpose. Fascists have often rejected the idea of being on one side or the other of this political spectrum and said they were part of what they called the “third force.” (3)
In order to protect the existing social order, the working class would be suppressed. Keeping the strict social order was very important. The leader of the state would be very authoritative and the state would have absolute power over the people. Like many others, fascism directly opposed communism. It also usually promoted a private economy. (2)

2 3 By Sarah Hall Thinking Map 1 ONE. By Alina Sayani Politics in Relation To Fascism Sources 4 by Carolyn Bossmann Pictures Benito Mussolini of Italy. Mussolini is considered to be the founder of the fascism ideals that
we know today, especially since he was the first to coin the term "fascism." SOURCES 1. http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/Fascism+as+a+political+movement

2. http://people.howstuffworks.com/fascism.htm

3. http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/fascism/fascism-and-the-political-spectrum.html
For 2 Sources For 3 1.http://people.howstuffworks.com/fascism.htm

5 Hitler brought fascism to Germany in the time of the Nazis. In Germany, fascism was all about the supremecy of a certain ethnic group, which Hitler put into place as blonde, blue eyed Germans. Francisco Franco took over Spain during the civil war there. He brought fascism to Spain, but instead of him having the aftermath that Hitler and Mussolini had, he is still regarded as the savior of Spain. These are prisoners at the concentration camp Auschwitz. They were people that did not fit their dictators view of how Germans should look, which is a characteristic of fascism. Characteristics of Fascism by sarah hall The fascist rulers of Europe met with each other, and ultimately created the definition of fascism that we know today. These were, and still are, the most prominant examples of fascism. for 4 1.http://quierosaber.wordpress.com/2009/10/16/documents-show-mussolini-once-worked-for-british-intelligence/





•March 23, 1919: Mussolini held a meeting in the Piazza San Sepolcro, Milan. Here he
declared the original principles of Fascists. This event signified the
beginning of Fascism in Europe. (3)
•1920: Hitler took control of The German Workers’ Party and named it the National
Socialist German Workers’ Party or the Nazi Party. It was the creation of this
party that helped Hitler become a dictator in Germany and enforce his
authority on the Germans. It helped spread the idea of Fascism. (1)
•1921: Mussolini was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house
in the Italian parliament. This helped Mussolini rise to power slowly and be
able to use his authority in establishing Fascism. (3)
•1922: The King appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister. Mussolini had the support of
landowners, business and military leaders which ultimately forced the King
to make him Prime Minister. This marked his rise power and influence which
later helped him in establishing Fascism. (4)
•1922: Mussolini’s March on Rome took place. It was done so that he and his Fascist
party could rule Italy. This March was a step taken to directly overthrow the
Italian government so that a single party could rule. Later Mussolini used the
party to his advantage and began his dictatorship. (3)
•November 1922: Giordana, right wing municipal counselor of Bologna, was
assassinated. This event made it easier for the state to use the
Black shirts as a tool of repression against Socialist movements.
By repressing socialists it was easier to promote the ideas of
Fascism amongst Italians without any interference. (3)
•October 30, 1922: King Victor Emmanuel declares Mussolini premier in an attempt
to head off violent conflict between the Fascists and the
Communists. (2)
• November 9, 1923: Hitler and General Ludendorf attempted the Beer Hall
Putsch. This was a small revolution in which Hitler jumped
on a beer hall table and announced that the Weimar
government should be overthrown. Both men led their
supporters in the streets but were arrested. This event was
extremely important because when Hitler spent 2 years in
prison he wrote his book Mein Kampf. This book outlined his
future policies, centered on the theory of Aryan superiority
and Jewish inferiority. It was a kind of plan Hitler had in mind
which he wanted to introduce in Germany. A plan of Fascism. (1)
•10 June 1924: Giacommo Matteotti, an anti-fascist writer was assasinated by
Mussolini’s secret police force, Ceka. It was after this significant event
that Mussolini tried to install dictatorship and carry out Fascism. (3)
•1925: Hitler was released from prison. This release led to him organizing the Nazi
Party to win over Germany’s government so that he could become dictator of
a Fascist country and expand Germany into a Fascist Empire recognized in the
world. (1)
•1932: the Nazis won 37.3 % of the popular vote and occupied 230 seats in the
German Reichstag. This popularity gave Hitler power to impose Fascism and
become dictator. (1)
•January 30, 1933: President Paul Von Hindenburg appointed Hitler as chancellor.
This event was important as Hitler then dissolved the Reichstag
and persuaded Hindenburg to issue a decree which would give
him the authority to prohibit public meetings, wearing of political
uniforms, and publication of dissenting opinions. (1)
•February 27, 1933: The Reichstag building was burnt down. A Dutch boy was
arrested for arson because he claimed that he worked for
the Communists. Hitler used this incident to persuade
Hindenburg to restrict all individual rights and declare that the
central government could oust any state government failing to
maintain order. This event was significant as it was used to work
for the establishment of Fascism. The loss of individual rights
was leaning towards the start of dictatorship. (1)
•March 23, 1933: The Reichstag passed The Enabling Act. This event led to Hitler
being able to make decrees with the status of law and ending
elections. The fact that he could make such decisions established
as a dictator or person with immense authority.
•1934: Hindenburg’s death. This event marked the beginning of Hitler’s rule as a
dictator . Hitler constructed the Third Reich under his dictatorship, and used
the Gestapo, secret police, to stifle all dissent. (3)
•September 1935: Nuremburg laws were made by Nazis at their annual party rally.
Jews were not given German citizenship, could not marry
Germans and were restricted. This Fascist law against Jews
created a spark in the relationship between Germans and Jews
that would ultimately lead to war. (4)
•November 9, 1938: The Kristallnacht occured. Nazis destroyed Jewish businesses,
killed thousands of Jews, and sent many to concentration camps.
this night created more dissatisfaction amongst the Jews and
Germans therefore war was bound to happen.
sources for 1 1) http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/interwaryears/section10.rhtml

2) http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/interwaryears/timeline.html

3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism#Europe

4) http://worldbookonline.com/advanced/article?id=ar192260&st=fascism
By julie rios Fascism: Doctrine and institutions by benito mussolini Like all sound political conceptions, Fascism is action and it is thought; action in which doctrine is imminent, and doctrine arising from a given system of historical forces in which it is inserted, and working on them from within. It has therefore a form correlated to contingencies of time and space; but it has also an ideal content which makes it an expression of truth in the higher region of the history of thought.... To know men one must know man; and to know man one must be acquainted with reality and its laws. There can be no conception of the State which is not fundamentally a conception of life: philosophy or intuition, system of ideas evolving within the framework of logic or concentrated in a vision or a faith, but always, at least potentially, an organic conception of the world.

Thus many of the practical expressions of Fascism--such as party organisation, system of education, discipline--can only be understood when considered in relation to its general attitude toward life.... A spiritual attitude. Fascism sees in the world not only those superficial, material aspects in which man appears as an individual, standing by himself, self-centered, subject to natural law which instinctively urges him toward a life of selfish momentary pleasure; it sees not only the individual but the nation and the country; individuals and generations bound together by a moral law, with common traditions and a mission which suppressing the instinct for life closed in a brief circle of pleasure, builds up a higher life, founded on duty, a life free from the limitations of time and space, in which the individual, by self-sacrifice, the renunciation of self-interest, by death itself, can achieve that purely spiritual existence in which his value as a man consists.

The conception is therefore a spiritual one, arising from the general reaction of the century against the placid materialistic positivism of the XIXth century....

In the Fascist conception of history, man is man only by virtue of the spiritual process to which he contributes as a member of the family, the social group, the nation, and in function of history to which all nations bring their contribution.... Outside history man is a nonentity. Fascism is therefore opposed to all individualistic abstractions based on eighteenth century materialism; and it is opposed to all Jacobinistic utopias and innovations....

Anti-individualistic, the Fascist conception of life stresses the importance of the State and accepts the individual only in so far as his interests coincide with those of the State, which stands for the conscience and the universal will of man as a historic entity. It is opposed to classical liberalism which arose as a reaction to absolutism and exhausted its historical function when the State became the expression of the conscience and will of the people. Liberalism denied the State in the name of the individual; Fascism reasserts the rights of the State as expressing the real essence of the individual. And if liberty is to be the attribute of living men and not of abstract dummies invented by individualistic liberalism, then Fascism stands for liberty, and for the only liberty worth having, the liberty of the State and of the individual within the State. The Fascist conception of the State is all-embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value. Thus understood, Fascism is totalitarian, and the Fascist State--a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values--interprets, develops, and potentiates the whole life of a people.... source for 5 http://college.cengage.com/history/west/resources/students/primary/fascism.htm Characteristics of fascism
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