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Manifest Destiny

1800 - mid-18050's

Johanna Schulze Zumloh

on 10 January 2014

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Transcript of Manifest Destiny

(cc) image by jantik on Flickr
Louisiana Purchase
Erie Canal
Erie Canal
under construction
Erie Canal completed and opened
Monroe Doctrine
Indian Removal act
The Alamo
Texas Independence
Oregon Trail
Used by fur traders/trappers
Oregon Trail
Oregon Trail
Mexican American War
Mexican American War
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Wilmot Proviso
California Gold Rush
California becomes a state
California Gold Rush
Compromise 1850
Gadsden Purchase
Ostend Manifesto
Manifest Destiny
for the combination of:
exceptionalism, nationalism and expansionism
General conceptual
-more than 2.000.000km²
-About 15 Millionen US-$
-Doubled the size of the US to this time (today ¼ of the United States)
-Napoleon Bonaparte (Emperor Napoleon I)
-Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to buy New Orleans and more it possible for 10 Million US-$ (should join Robert Livingston)
-American Minister Livingston already bought Louisiana
-April 30th
-Jefferson not happy with Purchase -> wanted it for 10 Million $ and too much land-how shall they govern it?
Napoleon Bonaparte
- acquired Louisiana from Spain to France
-good trading (Mississippi)
Louisiana Purchase Backround
-Thomas Jefferson interested in Louisiana
-No real threat, America could size territory
-respect: Napoleon = Military genius
-Did not want a war
Napoleon Bonaparte:
Louisiana Purchase Background
-Pocket the money for his stremes nearer home
-failed reconquer sugar-rich island of Santo Domingo
-should have ended twenty-mouth lull
-Hoped America would be strengthen by Louisiana
-that America becomes a power against the lordly British in the World
Louisiana Purchase Backround
-But Senators were fine with it
-proposed as early as 1768
-until 1808 state couldn't fund construction of the canal
-should link water of Lake Erie in the west to the Hudson River in the east
-would open west country of Appalachian Mountains to settlers
-cheap + safe way for trading
-July 4th: Governor DeWitt Clinton broke ground for Construction of the Canal
"Clinton's Big Ditch" or "Governor's Gutter"
- October 1825
-18 aqueducts, ca 83 locks, rise of ca 500 ft, 383 miles long, 4ft deep, 40ft wide
-carried boats -> 30 tons of freight
-Shipping a ton of grain from Buffalo to NY-> fell from 100$ to 5$
-Completion October: boat from Buffalo to NY (colorful ceremony)
-Governor Clinton emptied a cask of water from the lake "the marriage of the waters"
-people came from everywhere to live near the canal
-included in President James Monroe's annual message to the Congress, Dec 2nd
- when John Quincy won Monroe over to his way of thinking
-non-intervention (US don't intervene in European conflicts - Europeans shall not intervene in US conflicts)
-non-colonization (Europeans are not allowed to create colonies in the US)
-not a pledge or agreement -> simple personalized statement of policy
-expression of the post-1812 nationalism
President James Monroe (April 28 1758-July 4 1831)
-signed into law: May 28 by Andrew Jackson
-authorizing the president to treat with native tribes who lived in federal states (Cherokees)
-wanted them to change their land with land in Louisiana (<- was not a organized territory yet)
-Law: first years of resettlement: Natives supplied by the US + Natives can keep their new land forever
both were not complied by the United States
Indian Removal Act 1830
Trail of Tears
-Part of Indian Removal Act
-Cherokee Nation: forced to give up land east of Mississippi River and should migrant to present-day Oklahoma
-devastating effects
-4000 out of 15000 migrants died because of disease, exhaustions and starvation during their march
Trail of Tears
Trail of tears (Map)
-old spanish Mission (like a church -> Natives)
-located: today known as San Antonio, Texas
Mission San Antonio de Valero
-Famous for Battle of the Alamo 1836
-187 men from Texas fought for Texas independence from Mexico
-March 1836-> men defeated by a force of mexican troops
-Men died- "Remember the Alamo"= battle cry of Texans rest war
The Alamo: since 1960 a museum in San Antonio, Texas
Texas Annexation
-became a topic of political+diplomatic discussion after Louisiana Purchase 1803
-became a matter between 1836-1845 (Texas was a republic)
-1845: USA annexed Republic of Texas = 28th State
-US inherited Texas border dispute with Mexico -> Mexican-American war
-Texas Revolution/ Texas war of independence: military conflict between government of Mexico and Texas colonists
-Texas wanted independence of Mexico
-war: Oct 1835-April 1836
-"Repiblic of Texas" after final battle in April 1836
-Intermittent conflicts continued into 1840's
-> Finally being solved with Mexican-American war
Mexican-war or U.S. -mexican War
-Start in spring 1846
-armed conflict: Mexico vs. USA
-> in wake of annexation of Texas (Mexico considered Texas as part of their Territory despite Texas Revolution
-war end: Fall 1848
-in victory of the United States
-first used by fur trappers/traders -> 1840
-end of Oregon Trail
-first transcontinental railroad connection along this route
-makes trip west faster, safer and cheaper
-route ca. 2000 miles long
-across the Rocky Mountains
-Pathway to the west
-longest overland trail in North America
-just passable on foot or by horseback
Oregon Trail
-begin: ca. 50000 pioneers went west for a 25 year span
-from Independence, Missouri -> Oregon City, Oregon
-improved roads-> ferries, bridges...
-ca. 400000 settlers, ranchers, farmers, miners, buisness men + families
-Today: Interstate 80
-ended war: signed Feb 2 by Nicholas Trist
-forwarded to Washington
-Toomas Pork-> Treaty to Senate
-confirmed: -American Title to Texas
-yielded area westward to Oregon and the Ocean
-embracing California
-U.S. agreed: -paying $15 Million for land
-assume claims of its citizens ($3250000)
-Conflict until Compromise of 1850
-first presented in U.S house of Representatives:
-Aug 8, 1846 -> failed
-Feb 1847 -> failed, too
-Amendment to a funding bill by President James K. Polk (any aquired land from Mexico must be free from slavery)
-not drafted by David Wilmot of Pennsylvania
-> Jacob Brinkerhoff of Ohio
-Wilmot had a copy of Brinkerhoffs Proviso in his hands when Speakers called on him
(unlikely to be recognized by Speakers)
-1848: James Marshall discovers Gold at Sutter's Sawmill on Jan 25
-1849: Gold rush starts to attract people from around the world
-1850: California becomes a state
-1852: Gold becomes more scare
-Development of better mining techniques
-1853: Population of California excedes 300.000
-1859: Discovery of Silver in Nevada->ends Gold Rush
-1849: California upset the balance between the free and slave states in the U.S Senate
-Jan 29 Henry Clay introduced a series of resolutions to seek a compromise between North+South
-Consists 5 laws (dealt with the issue of slavery)
-parts of it:
-Fugitive Slave Act amended
-Slave trade in Washington D.C. abolished
-boundary dispute between Texas & New Mexico
-California entered Union
-Territorial Government created in Utah
-Sep 9 -> 31st State of the U.S.A
-Gold Rush hastened California's admittance to the Union -> huge increase of population
-1849: California sought statehood
-after heated debate: California= non-slavery, free state by Compromise of 1850
-First capital: San Jose
-signed by James Gadsden (President of a railroad company) and Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (mexican President)
-agreement between the U.S and Mexico -> finalized in 1854
-U.S. agreed to pay $10 Million for a ca. 30000 square mile portion of Mexico (later part of Arizona & New Mexico)
-provided land necessary for a southern transcontinental railroad
-to resolve conflicts that lingered after Mexican-American war
-named for its written location: Ostend Belgium
-secret plan -> to be written by American diplomats
->outlining the U.S. acquisition of Cuba (slave territory)
-If Spain wouldn't sell -> U.S. would take it with force
-did not remain secret
-Northerns angered about plan of slavery -> were unhappy with Compromise of 1850
-> new reason to impose on the abomination of slavery
David Wilmot
Jacob Brinkerhoff
James Gadsden
continental expansions by the United States of America
The belief or doctrine, held chiefly in the middle and latter part of the 19th century, that it was the destiny of the U.S. to expand its territory over the whole of North America and to extend and enhance its political, social, and economic influences.
Discovery of gold and minerals: growth of wealth
slave liberation & civil war = immigration to the west
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