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Cultural Otherness

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Christopher Bagby

on 25 April 2014

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Transcript of Cultural Otherness

Bridget Turner
Modern Issues of
Exclusion
in Japan:
在日韓国人と在日中国人
Deutscher gegen Jude: sichtbare Kultur der Weimarer Republik und des Dritten Reiches
Exclusión Cultural en España Medieval


Turning space into place

Iberian Penisula

Romans→Visogoths→Moors→Catholics




$1.25
Monday, February 17, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Questions
How does a culture use textual, visual, and the concept of space and place to exclude?

Is there embedded resistance to cultural exclusion?

How does a culture's definition of "the other" change over time?
Identity and Otherness
Creating Cultural Identity Through Exclusion
"
Zainichi
" in Japan
Ley Lines (Shinjuku Black Society) 1999
The Ghettos of Shinjuku
Takashi Miike's Shinjuku
How does a culture use textual, visual, and the concept of space and place to exclude?

Is there embedded resistance to cultural exclusion?

How does a culture's definition of "the other" change over time?
Ende 終わりFin τέλος
Historical Background
After WWI:
From empire to democracy
Economic crisis
Changes in social life
Jews blamed for all of these
Long-standing anti-Semitism
National Socialism
Physical "Deformity" = Moral Degeneracy
Human vs. Animal/Monster
War Guilt and Greed
Analysis and Conclusions
Cantar de mio Cid


Composed 1195-1207

National hero of Spain

"Reconquista"






Oral Text
Visual Representations
Continued use of traditional Anti-Semitic tropes
Subversion of Jewish resistance to exclusion
Mass-production and media domination
Photographs and film
Visibility
Two primary groups of zainichi

Mainly immigrants due to economic difficulties or early 20th century Japanese imperialism

Korean population:
515,570 with permanent resident status 284,840 naturalized Japanese citizens
Chinese resident population:
653,004
As depicted in "Ley Lines", the Shinjuku ghettos feature poor living conditions, violence, and drugs.
Making and establishing a space for zainichi symbolizes a separation of ethnically Japanese from vice, poverty, and crime.
Βάκχαι δύναμιν Βάκχος
Athenian Drama and Greek Concepts of "Otherness"
Greek Plays and the Theater
- An Athenian woman would be be married around the age of 13.

- She would not (usually) be taught to read or write.

- Would not leave the house unless accompanied by a male member of her family.

- When she left the house she would be covered from head to toe (only her face and hands would be exposed).

- Average times a woman would leave the house would total to 3 or 4 times a year.
Life of an Athenian Woman
- Pentheus, the king of Thebes, has angered Dionysus by denying his divinity.

- In retaliation the god decides to turn the women of Thebes into Maenads.

- Pentheus declares that he'll stop the spread of this new and terrible religion no matter what and arrests the disguised Dionysus.
The Bacchae - by Euripides
The Bacchae by Euripides
The Main Players:

-Dionysus: God of wine, theater, and passion

- Pentheus: King of Thebes (cousin of Dionysus)

- Agave: Mother of Pentheus

- The Maenads: Female followers of Dionysus
- Dionysus convinces Pentheus that he ought to go and observe the maenads before he makes his decision

- Pentheus agrees and disguises himself as a woman in order to witness the Maenads and their rituals

- But Dionysus betrays Pentheus to the Maenads and the Athenian women (under the thrall of Dionysus) rip Pentheus apart, thinking that he is an animal. The play ends with Dionysus triumphant.
The Bacchae cont.
Embedded Resistance:
Dionysus: “I must defend my mother’s name”.

Tireseas: "Dionysus does not control our women’s modesty in love; let us consider whether this restriction that we prize is really suitable to a woman’s nature”

Dionysus: "Now Pentheus will rage because the women are up in the mountains, acting out of turn. But his desire to join them, and his own, repressed feminine nature, will be revealed by the god.”


Works Cited:
Aristotle. The Poetics.

Cresswell, Tim. Place: A Short Introduction. Classroom Resource.

Euripides, and Paul Roche. Three Plays of Euripides: Andromache, Medea, The Bacchae. New York: Norton, 1974.

Padel, Ruth.In and Out of the Mind: Greek Images of the Tragic Self.

Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin. Anxiety Veiled: Euripides and the Traffic in Women.

Winkler, John J., and Froma I. Zeitlin. Nothing to Do with Dionysos?: Athenian Drama in Its Social Context.

Zeitlin, Froma I. Playing the Other: Gender and Society in Classical Greek Literature.

Exclusion is used to form identity because it distinguishes a clear boundary surrounding the self and the other onto which anxiety can be projected, removing the perceived source of anxiety from the cultural or national group one identifies with.
Shinjuku and Place
Miike's film depicts Shinjuku in 2 different ways according to Tim Cresswell's definition of place:

1) Shinjuku becomes a place of full of significance for the three main characters.
2) Shinjuku is portrayed as being a space to keep the marginalized zainichi away from mainstream Japan.
List of works cited:
Cresswell, Tim. "Defining Place." 2004
Miike, Takashi. "Ley Lines." Film. 1999.
Ryang, Sonra. "Koreans in Japan: Critical Voices From the Margin." 2000. Routledge. London.
Unknown author. "The Zainichi Korean Experience: Two Women Compare." Autobiographical film presentation. Tamarahco Hen Productions.
Relation to Questions:
1) How does a culture's definition of otherness change over time?
2) Is there embedded resistance to cultural exclusion?
3) How does a culture use the textual, visual, and the concepts of space and place to exclude?
Bibliography
1. Cantar De Mio Cid. Alhambra Madrid, 1989. Print
2. Walter Ong, “Some Psychodynamics of Orality” (PDF).
3. Sayers, Dorothy L. The Song of Roland. Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin, 1957. Print.
4. "Cantar De Mio Cid." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 May 2014. Web. 12 Apr.
5. Anthony J. Cárdenas-Rotunno. Heroes and Anti-heroes:A Celebration of the Cid PDF
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