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Physical Attraction Globally!
Transcript of Physical Attraction Globally!
In year 2009, 365,000 people out of the total population of South Korea, 49,232,000, have undergone the knife. South Korea Ranked 3rd in the number of cosmetic surgeries performed in 2011
Most common patients are women enhancing breasts or getting liposuction
Necessary to keep jobs Brazil Differences in Perceptions of Beauty and Cosmetic Procedures Performed in Ethnic Patients. Talakaub, Lily and Wesley, Naissan M.D. 457% increase in non surgical cosmetic procedures between 1997 and 2007. Plastic Surgery The top 10 countries:
1. United States
7. S. Korea
10. Spain Plastic Surgery Afro-Brazilian make up 50.8% of the population at 90 million.
Paid half as much as whites.
Target of police brutality.
“acts of resistance” killings Racism in Brazil http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/6904640.stm “When you are fat, it makes you look healthy; people respect you. People honour you. Wherever you go, they say, 'your husband feed you fine…If you go to a village, people can come out to look at you, because you are healthy.” – Happiness Edem Body Types: South America Synnott, A. (1989) “Truth and Goodness, Mirrors and Masks Part I pg. 610 Combination of qualities, as shape, proportion, color, in the human face or form or in other objects that delights the sight - Concise Oxford Beauty Africa “When a politician enters office, the first thing he changes is his car. Then his house and his wife. And finally his face.”- Luis Majul
More than 1 million people in past 25 years
As popular as computers and cell phones
"A pretty face has more power and will get you more than 20 letters of recommendation.”- Jose Juri Argentina Sherrow, Victoria "For Appearance' Sake" Racism directed against ethnic groups has affected social attitudes about appearance.
During the 1800s and 1900s, women with darker skin colors who were oppressed by northern European ideals of beauty tried bleaching their natural dark skin tones. Racism and Skin Color Sherrow, Victoria "For Appearance' Sake" By the late mid-1900s, particularly with the changing attitudes ushered in by the 1960s, African Americans began to appreciate and enhance their own natural attractiveness.
Western cultures began to recognize African American men and women for their good looks and other qualities. Civil Rights Movement Sherrow, Victoria "For Appearance' Sake" TV ads for skin-lightening creams have been running for many years.
Products for both men and women.
Advertisements depict lighter skin will help people get ahead in the world of work and make them more attractive to the opposite sex. Skin Color in the Media http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=120340646 Skin whitening creams are big business in India.
Indian social caste system associates darker skin with members of lower strata of society.
During pregnancy women will eat saffron and powdered gold in the belief that this will make their babies lighter. Skin Whitening http://www.consultancyafrica.com Western Influence http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=120340646 "Obviously what you don't have is what you want. The Western world, they go in for tans. They want to get a little brown touch to themselves. They think that's hot."
"So, what we think over here, since we are brown-skinned people, white is hot.“
-Darshan Gokani, 27, a model for TV and print commercials. White is Hot Sherrow, V. (2001) For Appearance Sake. pg. 44, 132, 241, History proved a pale complexion as beautiful and pure
Dark, vivid skin tones were masculine
Psimythion – Ancient Greece
Ceruse powder – Middle Ages
Lead and mercury in cosmetics lead to yellow teeth and more darker complexions White as Snow “The male beauty ideal of the Wodaabe stresses tallness, white eyes and teeth; the men will often roll their eyes and show their teeth to emphasize these characteristics.” http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.php?id=23482 Makeup and Body Decoration:
Wodaabe Tribe Sherrow, V. (2001) For Appearance Sake. pg. 132
Dyed eyebrows & eyelashes with soot
Phykos for rosy cheeks
Engaged in physical exercise
Fresh air was key to health complexion Ancient Greek Beauty Sherrow, Victoria "For Appearance' Sake" Mayans believed that being cross-eyed was attractive.
Parents tied a bead on the front of a child's head so it dangled between their eyes.
The child would get cross-eyes by looking at the bead. Fun Facts:
Crossed Eyes Women:
Straight, preferably blond
50% more likely to dye hair than other ethnicities in order to achieve a youthful look Hair in South America http://www.adventureclassroom.org/cultures/maasai.htm Change in status Traditional Standards of Beauty:
The Massai What’s different about what these hairstyles represent? What do these hairstyles have in common?? Emma Wareus
Miss World Africa 2010 Signs of Western Influence Women > 35 years old: 32.6%
Men >35 years old: 5.6% Obesity in Africa Cunningham (1995) High eyebrows
Widely spaced large eyes
Full lower lip
Full hairstyle Study on Universal Beauty “Phi” The Golden Ratio use of mathematical proportions to calculate beauty.
Proportions are not suited for all ethnic groups
Modifications are being made to fit the diverse population Phi Mask:
The Not So Golden Ratio Beauty isn’t about having a pretty face.
It’s about having a pretty mind, a pretty heart and a pretty soul. -Drake http://culturevisuelle.org/introtovc/archives/606 “Be Born Again” corresponds to the western painting “Creation of Adam” by Michelangelo.
The painting represents God giving life to man.
Plastic surgery will result in a new life. Plastic Surgery Advertisements
South Korea http://culturevisuelle.org/introtovc/archives/606 Asian eyes are almond shaped and smaller because of single eyelids.
Caucasian eyes have double eyelids making eyes appear larger.
Double eyelid surgery. Eyes are widened with a crease in the eyelid to create larger eyes.
Increased in popularity in the last decade due to celebrity participation. Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder Late 20th century valued the sun tan
Able to afford a vacation
Lead to a rise in skin cancer Tanning:
Sun Kissed Light skin is most desirable
Want to be de-ethnicized
Brazil: high levels of racism. Skin Color: South America http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=120340646 Advertisements, taken out by parents seeking brides for their sons, frequently specify that they are seeking "fair" or "very fair-skinnned" girls. Matrimonial Columns-
Indian Newspapers Use of Deccan grass, barley and rice water to whiten complexions. Social Perception of Skin Color:
Japan http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/20027045 Before exposure to any European influence
Ancient Japanese Proverb:
“ White skin makes up for seven defects.”
White skin: symbol of privileged class who were spared from any outside labor.
Achieved look through powder, rouged cheeks and lips, and dark black drawn on eyebrows.
Late 19th century ideal: slim, fragile frame, slender face, and upturned eyes.
Late 19th century perception of ugliness: large face, lack of hair under temple, thick lips, dark skin, too plump of a body, excessive tallness and a talkative voice. Social Perception of Skin Color:
Japan Traditional actors
Feminine , slender, white skin, black hair and red lips.
Perception changed over time:
Darker skin and sharper features Standards for Men’s beauty:
Kabuki For Appearance’ Sake (2001) Native groups in the Americas removed pubic hair by plucking
European Jews of the Middle Ages thought dense body hair to be a sign of luck
Women in Latin America did not shave legs or underarms until American media influenced them Fun Facts:
Body Hair http://www.adventureclassroom.org/cultures/maasai.htm Long plaited hair
Use of red ochre to dye hair Traditional Standards of Beauty:
The Massai Warriors The Height of Your Life, Keyes (1980)
Women view taller men as more dominant, which in turns leads a woman to feel safe.
Survey of 79 college women. 2 claim they would date a shorter male Height http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/6904640.stm Symbol of status & power
Preparation for marriage
6 month-2 year periods
Diet high in fat and carbohydrates
Little to no movement Traditional Standards of Beauty:
The Fattening Rooms of Calabar Synnott, A. (1989). “Truth and Goodness, Mirrors and Masks Part I. pg. 613
Sherrow, V. (2001). For Appearance Sake. pg. 136 Men as paradigms for beauty – Plato
Beauty is “the gift of God” – Aristotle
“The chief forms of beauty are order and symmetry and definiteness” - Aristotle
Aspired to be God-like
Physically fit men Ancient Greek Ideals Synnott, A. (1989). “Truth and Goodness, Mirrors and Masks Part I pg. 611
http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/HU041626/ugly-sisters-prince-charming-and-cinderella Beautiful is good and the ugly is evil
Morally good is physically beautiful
Dates back to Homer’s The Iliad and Plato’s Greater Hippias Beauty Mystique Faces in Anime Differences in Perceptions of Beauty and Cosmetic Procedures Performed in Ethnic Patients. Talakaub, Lily and Wesley, Naissan M.D. Class notes Mulata: Brazilian national symbol of beauty
Large, round bottom with a thin waist and smaller breasts
Women’s ideal: curvy body
Men’s ideal: curvy body with big breasts and a “well-shaped” buttocks http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/1/93.full http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/20027045 http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/20027045 Polished skin with the droppings of the nightingale. White powder was applied for a smooth finish. Ratings of physical attractiveness (men & women) decline with age.
Double standard for men
Best indicator of youthfulness begins with the face Aging Throughout history, eyes have been regarded as a focal point of appearance and “The windows of the soul.”
The ancient Egyptians were renowned for dramatically emphasizing the eye.
Men and women lined their eyes with kohl to beautify their eyes and protect them from the sun. Ancient Eyes Sherrow, V. (2001). For Appearance Sake. pg. 45, 55. The Slender Fit Body 1960s Mod: Twiggy 5’7 at 90 lbs. Power to the Curves:
Morpurgo’s El Costume del la donne (1536) Roman Empire & Medieval Europe:
Women: Slim & small Ancient Greece:
Aspired to be God-like & Fit History of the Body:
Europe Toned & Fit Men Culture of Thinness
with some tweaks British Invasion: Twiggy comes to the USA Voluptuous Figures:
Marilyn Monroe “Gibson Girl”
Tall, Healthy-looking, Trim Waistline Sherrow, V. (2001). For Appearance Sake. pg. 45, 55. History of the Body:
America Gangestad, Steven. (2005). The Evolution of Human Physical Attractiveness Men Generally Prefer:
Women with low waist to hip ratio
Mesomorphic body types; lean & muscular
Skinny men & heavier men are at the bottom Western Physique 1800s: Wigs no More 1900s: Hair = Fashion 1600s
Men: Cavalier Look
Women: Big Hair 1500s Elizabethan England:
High Foreheads Greeks:
Men Short Hair
First Ponytail Middle Ages:
Long Hair = More Status
Men wore short hair 1883: France
Chemical Color Patent 16 – 17th Century
England: Red Hair 16th century Venice:
Coppery-Red 8th – 13th centuries: Blondes 400 BCE:
Greeks = Blonde 1400s:
England = No beards Sherrow, V. (2001). For Appearance Sake. HAIR: Europe http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12646-012-0158-6/fulltext.html Many studies conducted but nothing has been proven conclusive
Gentlemen Prefer Blondes?
Studies have shown that red hair and black hair are least preferred
French Nightclub Study
Blonde women got more male attention
Women responded similarly to blonde, brunette, & black haired men. Color & Courtship Facial Sexual Dimorphism Differences in secondary sexual characteristics between males and females
Small nose, small chin, and large eyes.
Broad jaw Thank you!