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Global Foods

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Kimberlee Klocke

on 11 December 2015

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Transcript of Global Foods

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Food for Today
Global Foods
Foods of Latin America
Foods of Africa &
the Middle East
Foods of Europe
Foods of Asia & the Pacific
Rice is the staple grain; soybeans used in soy sauce, tamari sauce, & tofu; seaweed used in cooking
India
Northern & central areas, wheat & lamb common; souther areas, rice and spices
Masala: most common Indian curry
Yogurt widely used
Little or no meat
Kebabs: meat (often lamb) & herbs on a skewer
Pilaf: cooked, seasoned rice w/chopped almonds, raisins, & yogurt
Raita: salad w/several types of vegetables & yogurt w/spices
Dal: dried beans or lentils cooked in seasoned broth
Puri: Indian bread
Australia & New Zealand
Similar to European countries; influence from Scottish, English, & French
Foods that are locally available
Meat & seafood
Pavlova: dessert - mixture of meringue, fruit, & cream
Background Info.
Over 20 countries in Central & South America
Language is Latin based (Spanish, French, Portuguese
History dominated by three native cultures: Aztec (Mexico), Inca (South America), & Maya (Central America)
Climates & geographical features: tropical rain forests, snow-capped mountains, arid deserts, & temperate zones.
Maize is a staple grain
Mexico
Central America
The Caribbean
South America
Native influences, along with influence from the Spanish conquerors
Basic foods: cornmeal, rice, cooked dry beans, chili peppers
Common Mexican Meals
Tortillas: thin discs of bread; made ground corn
Tacos: folded tortillas filled w/foods
Tostadas: crispy fried tortilla spread w/foods
Enchiladas: soft tortilla rolled around meat, bean, or cheese filling, topped w/salsa & cheese
Frijoles: cooked dry beans
Tamales: finely chopped fillings encased in masa dough, wrapped in corn husks, & steamed
Moles: Mexican sauces (tomatoes, chili, fruit, seasonings, & hot chocolate
Seven countries link Mexico to South America: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, & Panama
Mayan, European, African, multicultural decent
Cooking = Mayan & Aztec roots w/Spanish & Caribbean influences
Crops/exports: corn, beans, bananas, coffee, coconuts, & cacao
Chicken often eaten w/pineapple, pumpkin seeds, tomatoes, or raisins
Chayote: crisp vegetable, often sliced & simmered , mixed w/cheese, tomatoes, hot peppers, & eggs
Tropical islands south & east of Mexico, between Florida & South America: Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, & Puerto Rico
Influences from Spanish, Dutch, Portuguese, British, & French
Fish & shellfish are staple foods
Flying fish,conchs, shrimp, codfish, clams, grouper, red snapper, etc.
Tropical fruits & vegetables: mangoes, bananas, coconuts, papayas, pineapples, sweet potatoes, yams, pumpkins, & chili peppers
Coconut milk & fruit juices
Plantain: starchy, cooked as a vegetable (roasted, fried, boiled, baked)
Traditional Dishes
Moros y Christianos: Cuban national dish made with black beans & rice
Djon-Djon: black mushrooms found only in Haiti
Jamaican Saturday Soup: hot peppers, carrots, turnips, & pumpkin added to beef stock
Conchs: meat must be tenderized before it can be eaten
Crapaud: huge bullfrog that lives in the mountaintop, considered a delicacy
Twelve nations: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chili, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela
Brazil
Peru
Argentina
Largest country in South America; located on Eastern part of continent
Produces beef, coffee, & cocoa
Mixture of natives, Portuguese, & Africans
Feijoada: national dish of Brazil; made from stewed black beans, smoked sausages, dried beef, pork, onions, hot sauce, rice, collard greens, & sliced oranges
Churrasco: beef that has been marinated & barbequed
Mariscada: fish stew; clams, mussels, codfish, shrimp, crabmeat - cooked w/tomatoes & spices
Located on Pacific coast
Spanish influence
Known for corn, potatoes, squash, beans, cassava, sweet potatoes, peanuts, tomatoes, avocados, chili peppers, seafood, beef, & guinea pig
Gazpacho: cold tomato-based soup (Spanish)
Ceviche: raw fish marinated in lime juice (native)
South of Brazil; along the Eastern coast
Mostly European descent
Large beef industry
Puchero: meat & vegetable stew
Empanada: turnover of dough filled w/vegetables, meat, fruit, or combination of three
Carbonada Criolla: beef stew w/peaches
Share some of the same foods w/Latin America
People living south of the Sahara are mainly Africans; people living north are mostly Arabs
Africa Below the Sahara
Tropical or subtropical climate; known as the sub-Saharan region
Mountains, coastlines, river valleys, tropical rain forests, & desert
Kinship groups (related people) -> link into clans -> clans form to make tribes (thousands) -> often live together in villages & jointly own surrounding farmland
Lifestyles of those living in the cities are much different
Climates vary, thus resulting in different foods in different regions
Western & central Africa are wet, tropical areas -> plantains, rice, bananas, yams, & cassava
Grasslands in south & east -> corn, millet, sorghum, wheat, onions, garlic, pumpkins, watermelons, cucumbers, chili, dates, & FIGS
Chicken, cattle, sheep, goats, & fish -> special occasions
Coconuts introduced from Asia in the 1500s
Sweet potatoes came from America in 1500s
1600s: cassava & 1700s: peanuts
Fufu: yam paste made by boiling & peeling root or pounding -> often mashed, fried, or baked
Most Africans eat one large meal a day: grain (millet) cooked into porridge w/vegetables & flavored w/meat, poultry, or fish (if available)
Light snacks throughout the day
Meal is always a special occasion
Served in one large bowl, set on the ground -> people gather around on the ground-> using either bread or their fingers, they scoop up the food
African cooking often spicy; use whatever chili and spices available
Berbere: common in Ethiopia; garlic, red & balck peppers, salt, coriander, fenugreek, & cardamom
North Africa & Middle East
Five main countries in North Africa: Libya, Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, & Tunisia
Populations clustered along the Mediterranean, desert oases, & irrigated parts of Egypt along the Nile
Countries in Middle East: Lebanon, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Turkey, & Saudi Arabia (other smaller counties too)
Food staples: what, barley, olive oil, rice, yogurt, chickpeas, fava beans, lentils, lamb, & goat
Fruits: apricots, pomegranates, dates, figs, grapes, & oranges
Vegetables: eggplant, peppers, olives, cucumbers, & tomatoes
Seasonings: parsley, dill, mint, cinnamon, lemon juice, pine nuts, onion, garlic, tahini (sesame paste)
Arab Countries
Common dishes:
Tabbouleh: salad made w/bulgar, olive, oli, mint, tomatoes, parsley, & onions
Falafel: ground chickpeas, seasoned & fried
Kibbi: ground lamb, bulgar, cinnamon, & allspice
Stuffed vine leaves: filled w/rice & meat mixture, served w/yogurt sauce
Herrina: mutton & vegetable soup
Pastilla: pigeon pie made w/phyllo dough, eggs, spices, vegetables, & nuts
Couscous: type of pasta
Kebabs: marinated cubes of lamb or ground meat on a metal skewer, grilled w/herbs
Chelo: steamed rice w/meat or vegetable
Koresh: meat or poultry stew w/vegetables, fruits, nuts, & seasonings
Israel
Customs reflect Jewish food traditions & laws
Some live in kibbutz
communal organization which raises its own food
Traditional Jewish religious laws forbid cooking on the Sabbath
Slow cook the day before
Western and Northern Europe
British Isles, France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Austria, Italy, Greece, & Scandinavia
The British Isles
Island group: Great Britain (England, Scotland, & Wales) & Ireland
Beef, mutton, pork, & fish (think hearty)
Roast Beef & Yorkshire Pudding: beef popover w/pan drippings
Shepherd's Pie: meat pie covered w/mashed potatoes & baked
Cornish Pasties: steak, onion, potatoes, & carrots baked in pastry crust
Bubble & Squeak: chopped leftover meat & vegetables, mixed with mashed potatoes & fried
Finnan Haddie: smoked haddock prepared w/milk, onion, lemon juice, pepper, & parsley
Scones: biscuits
France
Haute cuisine: high-cooking; very skillful & elaborate
Nouvelle cuisine: new-cooking; trend is to use less fat, flour, & sugar
Ragout: meat & vegetable stew
Pot-au-feu: soup of beef or veal & root vegetables
Beef Bourguignon: stew of cubed beef, onions, mushrooms, onions, & carrots, served over potatoes
Bouillabaisse: hearty soup of fish, shellfish, tomatoes, & herbs
Spain & Portugal
Access to sea = fish
Common dishes: chicken & garlic, garlic shrimp, potato omelets, gazpacho, paella (rice based w/olive oil & saffron
Portuguese prefer spicier foods & richer foods that contain more cream & butter
Germany & Austria
Italy
Greece
Scandinavia & Northern Europe
Generally rich & heavy
Sausages: liverwurst, bratwurst, knockwurst, & frankfurters
Pork most popular, but beef & veal used too
Sauerbraten: beef roast marinated for several days in sweet/sour sauce, simmered in the sauce, served w/noodles, potatoes, or dumplings
Schnitzel (cutlet in German): meat dipped in egg, breaded, & fried
Kartoffelsalat: potato salad made w/red potatoes, oil, vinegar, herbs, mustard, & other seasonings; bacon sometimes added
Rich cakes & cookies:
Bavarian cream: mixture of custard & cream
Marzipan: ground almonds & sugar, formed into shapes
Nurnberger lebkuchen: gingerbread
Linzertorte: cake made w/ground walnuts & spread w/jam
Lamb is most popular meat; fish & shellfish also important
Tomatoes, green peppers, garlic, lemon juice, & olive oil
Feta cheese: made from goat's milk (salads)
Avgolemono: soup of chicken broth & rice flavored w/eggs & lemon juice
Moussaka: layered casserole made w/ground lamb & slice eggplant; white sauce poured over mixture before baking
Gyros: sandwich
Pasta!
Northern Italy, similar to France; Southern Italy, heartier foods
Cannelloni: pasta tubes stuffed w/meat or cheese, baked w/sauce
Ravioli: "pillows" filled w/savory mixture
Polenta: cornmeal cooked in milk or water, cooled & sliced
Risotto: grain dish made from rice, sauteed & cooked in stock & flavorings
Pesto: sauce of fresh basil leaves, garlic, olive oil, grated cheese, & pine nuts
Variety of meat, poultry, fish, & game
Vegetables vary: eggplant, artichokes, peas, squash, cabbage, potatoes
Antipasto = "before the meal"
Cheese
Denmark, Norway, Sweden, & Finland
Sweden = smorgasbord (bountiful buffet) of assorted meats, fish, raw vegetables, salads, & hot dishes
Dried & salted cod, fishballs in stews
Smorrebrod: open-faced sandwiches: sliced buttered bread topped w/pickled herring, cooked pork, raw cucumbers, onion, apple slices, mustard, & horseradish
Dairy
Fruktsoppa: fruit soup made from dried fruits & tapioca cooked in sweetened liquid & served cold
Eastern Europe
Russia
Vast area, from Eastern Europe to the Pacific Coast in Asia
Differs based on region
Schchi: soup made from sauerkraut
Borscht: beet soup
Piroshky: pie stuffed w/meat, vegetables, or cheese
Blini: yeast pancakes served w/caviar or smoked salmon & sour cream
Kasha: crushed buckwheat, side dish or ingredient
Other Eastern European Nations
Poland: Bigos - stew of game, mushrooms, onions, sauerkraut, sausage, apples, & tomatoes
Hungary: Goulash - simmered cubed beef, onions, paprika, potatoes, caraway seeds, tomatoes, green peppers, & honey
Japan
Japanese dietary guidelines recommend 30 different types of food a day
Sukiyaki: vegetables & meat cooked in wok
Tempura: crispy, deep-fried vegetables & seafood (batter-dipped)
Soba: buckwheat noodles
Miso: paste of soybeans (often used as flavoring)
China
Northern / Peking
Named after the capital (Peking); now Bejing
Dry & cold climate
Wheat is staple grain
Wonton - many uses
Coastal / Shanghai
Temperate climate
Fish & shellfish, pork, chicken, & duck
Proteins are mixed sparingly with large amounts of vegetables
Inland / Szechwan
Temperate climate
Noted for hot peppers, garlic, & ginger
Spicy, sweet, sour, salty, & bitter flavors balanced together
Southern / Canton
Subtropical climate
Steamed or stir-fried foods
Seafood, pork, poultry
Mushrooms & nits
Egg rolls
Korea
Rice, sometimes cooked w/barley for texture
Meals usually consist of soup or stew & a grilled or stir-fried dish
Fish & fish pastes
Pickled foods: kimchi - fermented cabbage
Southeast Asia
Thailand
Coconut milk used frequently in cooking
Noodles
Sauces made from oysters, black beans, & fish
Pad Thai: noodles, shrimp, peanuts, egg, & bean sprouts
Vietnam
Staple foods include rice & fish
Fish often seasoned w/nuoc-mom (spicy fish sauce)
Fresh ginger, coriander, lemon grass, & sweet basil
Indonesia
Highly spiced
Nasi goreng: fried rice w/meat or shrimp & vegetables
The Philippines
Blend of Chinese, Arab, & Indian people living on 7000 islands
Fish, pork, & rice
Adobo: pork marinated & browned in soy sauce, vinegar, garlic, bay leaves, & peppercorns
Full transcript