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Wilson Rojas

on 22 October 2015

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Transcript of TPACK

Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge
Wilson Rojas Bugueno - Instructional Designer - Kirkwood Community College
Shulman (1986) carried out a two-year research about teacher’s knowledge. He claimed that effective teachers have 3 types of knowledge: Content Knowledge, Pedagogical Knowledge, and Pedagogical Content Knowledge.

Content Knowledge:
“The amount and organization of the knowledge per se in the mind of the teacher”
“Subject matter knowledge for teaching”

"a range of ways that a subject can be represented, exemplified, and taught in certain areas or circumstances"


Mishra and Koehler (2006) proposed a technology integration model based on Shulman's PCK framework.
“New technologies have changed the nature of the classroom or have the potential to do so” (p. 1023).

"Technology is able to provide access to explanations, representations, analogies, and demonstrations that make the subject matter more accessible to the learner (p. 1023)".
Technological Content Knowledge
“knowledge about the manner in which technology and content are reciprocally related” (p. 1028)
Technology Knowledge
“knowledge about the standard technologies, such as books, chalk, and blackboard, and more advance technologies, such as the Internet and digital video”
Technological Pedagogical Knowledge
"knowledge of the available technology and how it works, and how teaching is affected by using it in educational settings (p. 1028).
Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge
TPACK is the basis of good teaching with technology and requires:
an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies;
pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content;
knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face;
Content Knowledge
“knowledge about the actual subject matter that is to be learned or taught”
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
“knowledge of pedagogy that is applicable to the teaching of specific content”
Pedagogical Knowledge
“deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning”
Activity Types
Where are teachers nowadays?

Technocentric approach

This means that...
Biggest problem about this approach:

“ignore[ed] the variation inherent in different forms of disciplinary knowledge and inquiry as well as the varied pedagogical strategies that are most appropriate for teaching this content”(p. 395).
This approach does not consider the unique processes and the activities involved when designing, planning, and delivering content and instructional materials.
Pedagogical decisions are made based on the technology.
Where SHOULD we go?
Student-centered approach
Goals and instructional activities remain their emphasis and technology is integrated and used as a tool to enhance the learning process from the student’s perspective.

How do we get there?

Even though each content area has its unique ways to design, deliver, and assess the content, according to Harris and Hofer (2009) there are five basic instructional decisions:

Choosing learning goals;
Making practical pedagogical decisions about the nature of the learning experience;
Selecting and sequencing appropriate activity types to create the learning experience;
Selecting formative and summative assessment;
Selecting tools and resources that will help students to understand the content.
Create an activity type table including the activities your students may perform in class.
Then, write a brief description of the activity.
Finally, reflect upon what technology may be used in a particular activity.
Warm - Up Activity
In groups, discuss the following:
You are in a contest where you need to survive on an island for 2 weeks.
You win if you do not lose or gain weight during your time in the island.
You are allowed to choose 3 things to take with you.
List them and then explain how they will help you win the contest...
...and may the odds be ever in your favor!
knowledge of students’ prior knowledge ;
and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge and to develop new or strengthen old ones (Mishra & Koehler, 2006, p. 1029)

In simple words:

In TPACK Framework, technology is seen as a tool that helps in the learning process.
TPACK is a constructivist approach because technology can be used to scaffold learning, and the technology is used by the students.
Representations of the subject matter can be enhanced through using technology.
Technology may be a way to help students understand difficult concepts depending on how it is integrated and used in the classroom.
TPACK needs to be applied using activity types.


Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge.
The Teachers College Record, 108
(6), 1017-1054.

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching.
Educational researcher
(2), 4-14.
Full transcript