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Copy of Copy of Tree Template

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Kali Shire

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Tree Template

Approaching Child Trauma in Practice

ACTIVITY SKILLS DEMONSTRATION





INTERGENERATIONAL TRAUMA
what is trauma
Crisis Intervention
Aboriginal Cultures:

-Vital
-Coherent
-Sophisticated-had a system of written symbolic communication
-Through a close reciprocal relationship, had acquired a strength for the physical environment.
-Teachings in a holistic fashion; these teachings were among those that were highly valued in family life (sharing, self-relience, proper conduct, individual responsibility, respect for all things living.
Economic survival-utilized the environment.
-All aspects of educational teachings, stressed the link to: nature, spirituality and sacredness (from birth to death) and were marked with a ceremony.
(Barman, Hebert & McCaskill, p.3)

First one was set up in the 1840’s with the last residential school closing in 1996.
Initially, about 1,100 students attended 69 schools across the country. In the early 19th century there were over 130 schools in operation.
In total almost 150,000 Aboriginal children were forced to attend, as young as 4 years old.
Attendance was mandatory for Aboriginal children across Canada, punishment was put into place including imprisonment, for parents if parents failed to send their children.

Residential Schools
“With the assumption, that with the rapidly changing world, Aboriginal people would not be able to adapt, therefore Residential schools were established.” (CBC News, 2008)
It was believed that through adopting Christianity and learning to speak English or French, through assimilation, that Aboriginals would be successful in mainstream Canadian society. *

Reasoning for Residential Schools
What went wrong?

With the Residential schools came severe punishment if an Aboriginal child was caught speaking their language or practicing any of their ceremonies.

There were reports of: cold living conditions, bad food, mistreatment, etc. *

Many of the reports were about the abuses that were being endured.

Siblings were unable to communicate with each other, even if they attended the same school.

Residential school trauma

Endured Abuses:
Physical
Mental
Emotional,
Sexual
Spiritual, etc.
There was a loss of culture and traditions:
practices and languages
Loss of parenting skills (valuable teachings not learned)
Adaptation to abusive behaviours, cycle of abuse
Loss of ability to connect with:
Siblings (even if they attended the schools too)
Parents
Relatives
community

Abuses:
Physical
Mental
Emotional,
Sexual
Spiritual, etc.
Lack of cultural/traditional
practices and languages
Lack of parenting skills
Adaptation to abusive behaviours, cycle of abuse
Loss of ability to connect with:
Siblings (even if they attended the schools too)
Parents
Relatives
community

Also included:
Lack of emotions: *
Affection
Nurturing
Sadness
Anger, etc.
Low self-esteem (hopelessness, etc.)
Addictions (chemical dependency)
High rates of:
Suicide
Violence
Crime
Poverty
Homelessness
Child apprehension
Disease, etc.
Mental health issues:
Anxiety
Depression, etc.
(With even higher rates of undiagnosed mental health issues)
Post-traumatic stress *
The list goes on and on…

Childhood Trauma

Impedes Brain development
Impedes emotional development
affects physical and psychological health
Impact can be long-term and cumulative
Trauma arises from an inescapable stressful event that overwhelms an individuals coping mechanisms (Van der Kulk and Fisler, 1995)
Trauma
Experience
Alcohol and drug abuse
domestic violence
natural disasters
recurrent physical, emotional or sexual abuse
war
living with someone who is chronolically depressed, suicidal, institutionalized or mentally ill
Psychological Impact
Risk Factors
emotional
Impulse control
Empathy
Mood regulation
Short term memory
Language- expressive and receptive
Attachement
Long term effects of trauma on the brain
Altered brain structure
Reduced Hippocampus
Enlarged and overactive amygdalla
Lower intracrania and cerebral volume
Effects of Unresolved Trauma
Social /academic impact
Avoidance
Diminished communication
memory deficits
Relational problems
Comprehension problems
Concentration
Attendance problems
Lower test scores
Emotional
Diminished self-esteem
Altered identity
Hypersensitivity to trauma in others
Diminished capacity for empathy
inability to process emotions through language
Diminished range of emotions-rage or terror
Physiological Impact
headaches
hypertension
heart disease
diabetes
muscle tensions
altered spatial awareness
digestive disorders
respiratory disorders
Substance abuse
Chronic fatigue
Weight Problems
compromised immune system
History of abuse
sexual or physical
family history of PTSD/mental illness
history of traumatic experience
history of substance abuse
lack of coping skills
high levels of stress in daily life
being female.
Anxiety/Panic
Failure to thrive
Phobias
Rage
Irritability
Mood Disorders
Personality disorders
Depression
PTSD
Child Trauma
Crisis Intervention Model
Help clients access support services and resources
Encourages utilization of adaptive coping skills to minimize impact of crisis event
Brief, time limited, task-centered, and solution focused
Intervention specific to event, situation or problem that occurred before state of crisis
Focuses on "here and now"
Once client has returned to pre-crisis level of functioning other supportive services are referred to
Tasks are used as primary change effort
Basic needs services are first priority
Theoretical Base of Crisis Intervention
Ego Psychology
Ecological Systems Theory
Cognitive Behavior Models
Solution Focused Models
Applied to Social Workers
Must be knowledgeable of appropriate strategies when utilizing crisis intervention
Need to be aware of community resources and collateral services to initiate intervention strategies and meet treatment goals
Mobilize resources by advocating, networking, and brokering for clients
7 Levels of Crisis
Level 1- Somatic Distress
Level 2- Transitional Stress Crisis
Level 3- Traumatic Stress Crisis
Level 4- Family Crisis
Level 5- Serious Mental Illness
Level 6- Psychiatric Emergencies
Level 7- Catastrophic Crisis
Stages of Crisis (Coady & Lehman, 2008, p.258)
Outcry
Denial or Intrusiveness
Working Through
Completion or Resolution
Phases of Helping
A- Assessment
C- Crisis Intervention
T- Trauma Treatment
Narratives of Resilience
Ungar (2001) has developed 'phases' for building narratives of resilience with youth
The 'Grand Narrative"
The medical narrative seems to have dominant status today:
'the grand narrative'
Inevitably infiltrates our understanding of identity and experience
Medical narrative is a 'double edged sword'
What is the language describing children who have experienced trauma?
Discourses of 'victimhood' located in the grand narrative
"Damaged forever"
Language creates a perception of 'vulnerable ' and powerlessness

Life is multi-storied, there is no single
truth
to our lives (Ncube, 2009)
There exists stories of suffering, but also of courage and skills of survival
The Narrative Dance
Narrative therapy is not rigid, occurring in a predetermined sequence
"...the process of narrative therapy is more of a weaving back and forth until an alternative story emerges than of moving lineraly through a series of steps."(Avis, 2006)
CONVENTIONAL TREATMENTS
COMMUNITY ISSUE
MEANING
PERSPECTIVE OF THE ISSUE
MEANING WITHIN COMMUNITY
GOALS
LINKAGE
SUMMARY
COMMON ELEMENTS
CONTINUITY
DERIVATION
STOPPING THE CYCLE
STOPPING THE CYCLE
APPROACH
Reflecting
Conversations that:
1. Contextualize past events
2. Deconstruct memories
3. 'Externalize' the problem
4. Highlight exceptions to narratives of vulnerability
Challenging
Conversations that:
1. Thicken description of narratives of resilience
2. Invite 'audience' participation
3. Explore talents
Defining
Conversations that:
1. Explore ways to demonstrate resilience
2. Locate support for a new identity
4. Review progress
5. Anticipate future growth
The Single Story
"As you can see

I'm pretty
messed up
, I'm not even sure
you can help me!"

(Yuen, 2007)
Violent
Delinquent
Insane
Depressed
Worthless
Struggling
Resisting
Functioning
Surviving
Growing
Juxtaposing Stories

Narrative Therapy
Application of postmodern theory (Ungar, 2001)
All knowledge is socially constructed
What is generally considered as 'truth' is shaped by dynamics of power
Postmodernism
A critique of the foundations of 'modernity'
Questioning the relevance of universal claims and 'grand narratives'
Truth is a product of langauge or social discourse (Lundy, 2004)
Narrative therapy draws on these ideas
Narrative therapy &
Childhood Trauma
Critique
Critics question the ability of postmodernism to effectively contribute to emancipatory struggle
'Many truths' makes it difficult to mobilize a united opposition
Rejecting theories such as capitalism is problematic when understanding class issues, for example
Credit where credit is not due
Beyond deconstruction?
(Lundy, 2004)
References
The Tree of Life

Developed to work with children, adults and communities who have exprerienced trauma
The 'second story'
Shifts the focus to positive attributes, dreams and aspirations
Helps workers gain a clearer undertsanding
Creates a safe place for expression
Crisis Intervention is defined as:
"the provision of emergency psychological care to victims as to assist those victims in returning the to an adaptive level of functioning and to prevent the potential negative impacts of psychological trauma" (Flannery and Everly, 2000, 119).
Basic Principles (Flannery & Every, 2000, p.120)
Intervene Immediately
Stabilize
Facilitate Understanding
Focus on Problem-Solving
Encourage Self- Reliance
Amber Young
Claire Whittal-Williams
Eric Storey
Jordana Buffalo
Kali Shire
Critique
May seem like a "Band Aid" approach
Not enough research to evaluate impact on cultural, gender and age differences
Micro Level Focus
Amanda
16 years old Female
Aboriginal descent
Exposure of abuse (physical, sexual, neglect) by mother, grandfather, and
Substance abuse
History of sexual exploitation
Mental illness
Prostitution
Legal problems
High risk life style
Avis, J. (2006). Escaping narratives of domination: Ideas for clinical practice
with women oppressed by relationship violence. In R. Alaggia & C. Vines (Eds.),
Cruel but not unusual: Violence in Canadian Families
(pp. 397-421). Waterloo, ON: Wilfred Laurier University Press.


Battiste, M. (19991). Micmac literacy and cognitive assimilation. In Barman, J.,
Herbert, Y., & McCaskill, D. Indian education in Canada. Volume 1: The Legacy. (pp. 23-44). Vancouver, B.C: UBC Press.

CBC News. (2008). A history of residential schools in Canada: FAQs on
residential schools and compensation. CBC news: Stolen Children June 8-21, 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/a-history-of-residential-schools-in-canada-1.702280

Furniss, E. (2011). Victims of Benevolence: The Dark Legacy of the Williams
Lake Residential School. Vancouver, B.C: Arsenal Press.

Gone, J. (2013). Redressing first nation’s historical trauma: Theorizing
mechanisms for indigenous culture as mental health treatment. Transcultural psychiatry, (50) 5, 683-706. Doi: 10.1177/1363461513487669

Lundy, C. (2004). Social work and social justice: A structural approach to
practice. Toronto, ON: Broadview Press.

McKenzie-Mohr, S., & Lafrance, M. (2011). Telling stories without the words:
'Tightrope talk' in women's accounts of coming to live well after rape or depression.
Feminism & Psychology, 21,
49-73. doi:10.1177/0959353510371367

Ncube, N. (2010). The journey of healing: Using narrative therapy and map-
making to respond to child abuse in South Africa.
The International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work, 1
, 3-12.

Ungar, M. (2001). Constructing narratives of resilience with high-risk youth.
Journal of Systemic Therapies, 20
, 58-73.

Yuen, A. (2007). Discovering children's responses to trauma: A response-based
narrative practice.
International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work, 4
, 3-18.
Felitti et al, 1998
Perry, B. 2001
Discussion/Questions
Thoughts re: Tree of Life activtiy?
Effects vs Responses: reflect from postion of child who has experienced trauma, and your position as a social worker
Full transcript