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U.S. Foreign Policy 1945-1980

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Clint Kovach

on 26 March 2015

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Transcript of U.S. Foreign Policy 1945-1980

A post World War II war for World Supremacy in an increasingly globalized context of economics, technology, and information to denote power
Cold War 1945-1980
1950s
On the verge of Nuclear War.....
1961 Berlin Wall

Built through Berlin blocking movement b/w the Soviet sector and the rest of the city for 30 yrs
Operation Zapata / Bay of Pigs Invasion
1,400 CIA trained Cuban exiles invaded southern Cuba to overthrow Fidel Castro (mission failed / soldiers were captured)
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962

Kennedy discovered Soviet long range missiles in Cuba; he ordered a blockade and a demand to remove weapons
Kennedy agreed not to invade Cuba if the Soviet Union removed the missiles
1960s
Peace Corps

an organization that sent young Americans to perform humanitarian services in Latin Amer.
Early Vietnam War 1964-1968
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964
– authorized the President to
“take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the US and prevent further aggression”
The Vietcong frustrated US troops w/ booby traps, guerrilla tactics, and blending into the general population
Agent Orange
–a chemical used to strip leaves from trees turning forest into wasteland
TET Offensive
(Jan 1968)
– Vietcong and NV military launched a massive surprise attack on South Vietnam
After the TET Offensive the media and public opinion did not favor LBJ or war

Normalization and Globalization- President NIXON
1970s
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
– a mutual defense agreement between 12 nations
Soviets respond by forming the
Warsaw Pact
- a mutual defense agreement between Soviet nations
Cold War gets Warm
President NIXON in VIETNAM
1970–Nixon announced the US bombing and troop invasion of Cambodia
1970-
Massacre at My Lai
of 300 S. Vietnamese by US troops (Lt. William Calley – went to jail)
Kent State Massacre 1970
-Ohio National Guard fired on anti-war demonstrators killing 4 and wounding 9
Pentagon Papers 1971
–top secret report about Vietnam written by Sec of Defense Robert McNamara, showed deception, false reports, and lying by LBJ’s administration
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was repealed

1972

“Christmas Bombings”

after the NV pulled out of peace talks w/ the US Nixon launched the war's most destructive air raid
1973
Paris Peace Accords
-
ended US involvement was meant to bring peace.
March 1975-Peace agreement collapsed
North Vietnam launched a full scale invasion of South Vietnam
April 1975 – Vietnam united
U.S. Foreign Policy 1945-1980
The 2 Sides
U.S.S.R.
Communist nations in Eastern Europe became known as
satellite nations
(Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Hungary) (USSR - #s over technology)
An
“iron curtain”
separated Communist Eastern Europe from the democratic West
United States
Truman Doctrine
– the goal was to
“aid free peoples who are resisting attempted take over by armed minorities or by outside pressure”

(pledged the US to fight Communism worldwide long term)
Marshall Plan
– a plan of recovery pumping billions of dollars of supplies, machines, and food and opening trade markets in Western Europe
Policy of Containment
– suggested by George Kennan, he argued the USSR has weaknesses and will fall apart, the US just needs to keep Communism from spreading
Korean War 1950-1953
Korea was split at the 38th parallel: Soviets controlled the north, and the US the south
North Korea invades the south
Truman gets UN intervention (MacArthur in charge)
Gen. MacArthur invades at Inchon; pushes N.Korean back to Chinese border (Truman warns MacArthur)
China sees UN action as a threat and invades Korea
MacArthur demands nuclear strikes against China, Truman refuses
MacArthur criticizes Truman publicly and is fired
War becomes a stalemate until 1953 when an armistice ends the war (following Eisenhower election)
54,000 US dead / 650,000 UN dead
Nikita Khrushchev
– assumed control of the USSR after Stalin’s death
CIA
preformed Covert (hidden) missions to remove anti-American leaders replacing them w/ pro American leaders (Italy; removals in Iran, Guatemala: Jacobo Arbenz 1954, Dominican Republic: Rafael Trujillo 1959, Congo: Patrice Lumumba 1959
Sputnik
–1st artificial satellite to orbit Earth (Russian)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) -s
tarted to research rocket science and space exploration
Brinkmanship
– willingness to go to the brink of war to force the other side to back down
1954 - China backed off Taiwan after threat of US nuclear strike
Détente (Day-tont)
- an attempt to have better relations with rivals for betterment of world peace
Détente lowers the risk of nuclear war by ensuring a predicable relationship
Détente did not intend to secure justice, it simply accepted a balance of power between the US and USSR by considering governmental legitimacy
Feb 1972 –
Nixon
made a visit to
Mao in China
(the 1st by a president since 1949)
May 1972 –
Nixon
attended a week long
US-Soviet summit
(diplomatic meeting with Premier
Brezhnev
)
SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty)
–a plan to limit nuclear arms b/w USSR and the US while also sharing info
I really regret getting this tattoo
President CARTER
Carter transferred control of Panama Canal to Panama effective 12/31/1999
After a Russian invasion of Afghanistan in 1979; Carter ordered a US boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow
1979
Ayatollah Khomeini
overthrew the US friendly Shah of Iran
Nov 1979 – Iranian revolutionaries stormed the US Embassy in Tehran taking 52 hostages for 444 days
Camp David Accords
– a peace treaty b/w
Israel (Begin)
and
Egypt (Sadat)
; Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula in return for peace

Begin and Sadat shared the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize

Germany and Berlin are divided into 4 sections (Potsdam Conference)
Berlin Air Lift 1949
– after Stalin closed all roads into West Berlin the US began dropping food, medicine and supplies until Stalin lifted the blockade
1949 –
Mao
Zedong led a Communist uprising against Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist govt.

Operation Halfmoon 1948
Assuming the Soviet Union starts a war in Europe, the US would lose the land battles as well as Germany before retreating to Italy and France
15 Days after the initial Soviet attack the US would launch a counterattack called an
"atomic blitz"
consisting of 133 atomic bombs dropped on 70 USSR cities (8 on Moscow) by USAF
Known as
"the nation killing concept"
Operation Eraser 1948
President Truman as well as US Navy opposed Halfmoon and pushed for Eraser; a conventional military plan to keep Western Europe from Russian control.
Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) 1960
Navy, Army, Air Force irreversible plan of attack against USSR, could not be altered, slowed or stopped once in motion
3,729 targets in USSR, China, North Korea, Eastern Europe
3,423 Nuclear weapons used
Approx death toll - 54% of USSR and 16% of China population - 220 million (not accounting for subsequent deaths
"Mankind must must put an end to war or war will put an end to mankind. The weapons of war must be abolished before they abolish us." - President John F Kennedy 1961
President FORD
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
– announced an embargo against any country supporting Israel while also raising crude oil price 70% and then 130% ($3 to $30 by 1980)
1971 – for the 1st time since 1889 the US imported more than it exported
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