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Lecture 2 MAN 20050

History of Work
by

Laura Mitchell

on 9 October 2015

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Transcript of Lecture 2 MAN 20050

To think about work in this way work is approached as a social phenomenon. The module focuses on three central problems of organisation as highlighted by sociology.
1. order
2. power
3. Interpretation
order
Whose History?
A managerialist (functionalist) view
Pre-Industrialisation
Industrialisation
Post-Industrialisation?
post-bureaucracy?
The changing nature of work
read
& prepare
You will find questions to help you and the full reading list on the KLE
Weber, M (1905) “The Spirit of Capitalism and the Iron Cage”, in Lemert, C.(2010) Social Theory: The multicultural and classic readings [e-book] Westview Press: Boulder, CO. pp104-108
For tutorials:
E-Book!
What image normally springs to mind when you think about ‘the worker’?
Pre-industrial craft worker (male)?
Blue-collar factory worker (male)?
Is there a 'typical' experience of work?
Legislation
Labour market participation
Changing Management Styles
Rise (and fall?) of Trade Unions
‘First there was Taylor who applied science to work; then there was Hawthorne who discovered the informal organization; Weber reintroduced structural considerations; today we have sophisticated models which integrate these perspectives (and implicitly) we are close to a paradigmatic science of behavior in organizations’ (Jacques, 1996: 15)
progressive
linear
teleological

Most wealth held by rulers,
society and work inefficiently organised by force or family
Feudal society
Pre-industrialisation
Decentralised, home-based, small scale work
All family members involved

e.g. Agricultural labourers, domestic servants, small workshops
Contrasting Example: The Navy
Not all working organizations were so small scale. The British Navy had 85,000 officers & men in 1759

Early bureaucracy
Mutually beneficial rules

Early form of ‘human resource management’
Consultations with crew
(See Grint, 2005: 53; see also Haggerty 2009)
Technological advances:
Steam engines, industrial chemistry,
Mechanical production methods

Rational, productive innovations in work organisation:
Factory production
Division of labour
Co-ordination & control
'scientific management'

Effects:
Time-keeping
Regular working hours
Decline of female participation in the workplace
Move from family wages to a single wage
Decline of domestic production
the knowledge economy?
the portfolio worker?
history has had its impact on the order of work & work organisations
Move from domestic to factory production
Time-keeping, capitalist mode of production, ownership patterns, move from agrarian to urban living
where work happens
when work happens
why (for whom) work happens
[History is] the story of the reduction over time of erroneous thinking’ (Jacques, 1996: 15)
Is history a line?
Or do we force it into alignment?
THIS IS ONE VIEW - LETS HIGHLIGHT THE PROBLEMS WITH THIS INTERPRETATION
(JACQUES DOES)
1000 AD
1769AD
James Watt patents his steam engine design
1982 AD
invention of the internet (TCP/IP standardisation)
Oh really? That assumes a lot!
Who is being left out of this history?
In thinking about what type of work counts as 'work' it is worth thinking about both the status and the value of that work, and what groups perform it.
- migrant workers
- women
- lower 'castes'
- 'dirty work'

has the source of value changed? Improved technology has mostly served to extend the division of labour globally, not changed the basic organizational structure
do individuals now build their own career narrative, following their own 'mission'? Most employment opportunities remain the same, with workers moving role based on the availability of work and other labour market conditions such as job security.
(see Thompson, 1967 "Time Work-discipline and Industrial Capitalism" Past & Present 38,1,56-97)
(see Vickery 1993, Grint 2005)
Technological advances:
advanced internet communication technologies
virtual production of services
(faster) global production chains
(see Braverman 1974)
(see Adam Smith)
A different era?
1903
Foundation of the Women's Social and Political Union
1918
women over 30 granted the vote
1914 -
WW1
1939 -
1945
WWII
1786
Building of New Lanark
1970
UK Equal Pay Act (effected 1975)
1879
Cadbury brothers establish factory at Bournville
1894
Radio waves demonstrated by Bose, Calcutta
1602
Chinese porcelain exported to Europe
1913
Ford
assembly
1984
UK miner's strike (Thatcher Era)
1930
start of the Great Depression
Founding of NHS (UK)
1946
1962
Cuban Missile Crisis
1949
1st Soviet
nuclear bomb & end Chinese Civil War
1961
Berlin wall built
1991
End of Cold War
1997 - 2000
dot-com 'bubble'
2007 -> ?
Global Financial Crisis

2006
twitter launched
2004
facebook launched

1951
First container ship
1649
Diggers movement
1534
Formation of Church of England
1791
Guilds abolished (France)
1067
earliest record of Corporation of London
1348-50
Black Death
1315-17
Great Famine
1607
Enclosure
protests
1978
China undertakes privatization reforms
Power
Order
Interpretation
Did capitalism come about through a shift in ideology?
How powerful are ideas about hard work and worth?
How relevant are ideas from over 100 years ago today?
why is it important to study the history of work?
Dr Laura Mitchell
MAN 20050 Lecture 2
Social Theory at Work
History of Work
There are strong myths about Capitalism and industrial progress as good, inevitable improvements
THE SIMPLIFIED 'MYTH'
THE MESSY 'REALITY'
Exclusion of women's work
Victorian Values aimed to exclude women and children from the workforce with the 'Factory Acts', despite the cheapness of their labour


1000 AD
1769AD
James Watt patents his steam engine design
invention of the internet (TCP/IP standardisation)
1903
Foundation of the Women's Social and Political Union
1918
women over 30 granted the vote
1914 -
WW1
1939 -
1945
WWII
1786
Building of New Lanark
1970
UK Equal Pay Act (effected 1975)
1879
Cadbury brothers establish factory at Bournville
1894
Radio waves demonstrated by Bose, Calcutta
1602
Chinese porcelain exported to Europe
1913
Ford
assembly
1984
UK miner's strike (Thatcher Era)
1930
start of the Great Depression
Founding of NHS (UK)
1946
1962
Cuban Missile Crisis
1949
1st Soviet
nuclear bomb & end Chinese Civil War
1961
Berlin wall built
1991
End of Cold War
1997 - 2000
dot-com 'bubble'
2007 -> ?
Global Financial Crisis

2006
twitter launched
2004
facebook launched

1951
First container ship
1649
Diggers movement
1534
Formation of Church of England
1791
Guilds abolished (France)
1067
earliest record of Corporation of London
1348-50
Black Death
1315-17
Great Famine
1607
Enclosure
protests
1978
China undertakes privatization reforms
Pre-Industrial World
1982 AD
Machine, not Person, of The Year!
Industrial Revolution
(Britain, USA, Europe)

Post-Industrial Age ???
Cadburys' factory in a garden
UK de-industrialization
http://www.google.co.uk/about/datacenters/gallery/#/
http://www.financialexpress.com/news/amazon-gets-fdi-battleready-with-more-warehouses/1259574
Berlin Wall demolished
European Sovereign
debt crisis
2009
?
Has this been a story of progress?
uncivilised past
better future
An example of Paternalism, in this case an attempt to construct an ideal work and living environment that promoted 'good' (moral) behaviour and hard work
Ford wrote about 'expressing your self' through work, this is not a new development
The majority of the wealthiest organizations are still highly bureaucratized with extensive divisions of labour
power
interpretation
war and conflict
Dominance through violence
influential ideologies
who is really 'at work'? How do ideologies change our perspectives?
What sort of attitude towards work accompanied the massive change of the Industrial revolution?
move from monarchy and religious empires to democracy
increase in political status and rights (to own property, to vote) of non-titled men, then eventually women
shift from owner-capitalists to professional managers
movements for worker's rights, women's rights and minority rights have changed legislation and improved working conditions and social welfare
history has demonstrated significant changes in the authority held by people or institutions
How we understand history is influenced by how we like to imagine ourselves and others, as well as by a lot of changes along the way
Religion was so important to feudal Europe that whole sections of society were given the 'work' of prayer (and were paid for it)
Agricultural work and musical performance were once equally common 'skills', but are now economically categorised very differently
The history of slavery is a good case study in looking at how changing interpretations about who was 'a real person' changed attitudes to work and pay.

Despite the new factories that seemingly put control in the hands of the owner, existing family work groups and internal sub-contracting was as usual as it had been in the medieval guilds
There was a huge shift, with Taylor, from 'visionary' or family management, to 'rational' or 'professional' management
As workers moved to the cities, leaving family networks behind, there was a huge growth in 'friendly societies'. Many of these became trade unions, bargaining with owners for different work arrangements
The story of the British East India Company is even more controversial, and demonstrates evidence of a huge bureaucratic organization (1600-1874), as do similar trade companies of the time, such as the Dutch East India Company (1602-1799)
Robins, N (2006).
The Corporation that Changed the World: How the East India Company Shaped the Modern Multinational
. London: Pluto Press
instead of bureaucratic organizations organized by rules, organizations are instead trust based, organized according to a core 'mission'


History is often presented as a linear story of events, like this timeline
Do these historical events tell a clear story of improved technology and products, better society and quality of life? The one-way line seems to suggest this, and there is definite evidence of continued overall growth in total wealth, but is that the whole story?
dominated first by agriculture and feudalism, then later by trade and the growth of mercantile capitalism
a period of massive economic, political and social change, mainly in the distribution of resources
is this a shift to a virtual world? With as many consequences for change as the Industrial age?
'enlightened' management
Full transcript