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Genetic Engineering

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Miss Villanueva

on 18 February 2013

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Transcript of Genetic Engineering

What is Genetic Engineering? Genetic engineering (GE) is a term for the process of manipulating genes-moving genes from one organism to another. It usually takes place outside of an organism's normal reproductive process. GMO The results of GE are referred to as "Genetically Modified Organisms" (GMOs) or as Genetically Engineered Organisms (GEOs) or as "Transgenic Organisms." They are also called chimeras. Example of GE in Human insulin Advantages How genetic engineering is done? 1. CLONING STEM CELL One of the most successful examples of GE is the production of human insulin through the use of modified bacteria. This was first approved in 1982 and has been saving the lives of diabetics ever since. Another is genetically engineered tissue plasminogen activator, which is expected to help prevent strokes. Genetic Engineering Miss Villanueva The textbook definition of a chimera is "an organism formed by splicing together portions of genomes from different organisms." Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another. This means that every single bit of DNA is the same between the two! 2. SCREENING 3. GENE TRANSFER The insertion of unrelated genetic information
in the form of DNA into cells. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/whatiscloning/twinning.html http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/whatiscloning/images/enucleation.mpg ENUCLEATION NUCLEAR TRANSFER http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/whatiscloning/images/transfer.mpg The gene to be inserted into the genetically modified organism must be combined with other genetic elements in order for it to work properly. The gene can also be modified at this stage for better expression or effectiveness. As well as the gene to be inserted most constructs contain a promoter and terminator region as well as a selectable marker gene. The promoter region initiates transcription of the gene and can be used to control the location and level of gene expression, while the terminator region ends transcription. GENE THERAPY PREGNANCY CASES Genetic engineering is also a boon for pregnant women who can choose to have their fetuses screened for genetic defects. These screenings can help the parents and doctors prepare for the arrival of the child who may have special needs during or after the delivery. PHARMACEUTICAL AGRICULTURE The common benefits are increase in the efficiency of photosynthesis, increasing the resistance of the plant to salinity, drought and viruses and also reducing the plant's need for a nitrogen fertilizer. DISADVANTAGES Scrambling genomes will lead to total chaos in evolution. GMO's in food Allergies Human Genome Project This is DOLLY! May Hamper Nutritional Value May Introduce Harmful Pathogens May Lead to Genetic Defects Detrimental to Genetic Diversity
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