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# The Geometry within Graphic Design

By Parth Kashikar Dure by 15 May, 2011
by

## Kashikar Ktrayne

on 18 May 2011

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#### Transcript of The Geometry within Graphic Design

The

Within
Graphic Design GEOMETRY Vector Geometry An aspect of geometry in which vectors with mathematical values are used to create animations and images on a computer. Usually works with a programming language. Works hand-in-hand with coordinate geometry to create a desired effect. Coordinate geometry uses the standard Cartesian Coordinate System. Images are produced through this method by creating single parts of the image at a time. Each image is then assigned a certain point and a certain section of the code. The parts are individually animated and eventually work together in the final composition. By assigning each part of the image a coordinate, a curve of values can be created. Keyframing is a technique used to control these values and animate them over time. Each method has its pro's and con's and are applicable in different situations 3D Modeling Works in three directions or axes; x, y, and z. To create complex 3D images a wireframe must be created. This is essentially multiple simple 3D shapes (cubes, spheres) that are compiled together to make a rough outline of a larger complex object. While making 3D animations many other things need to be considered such as perspective, lighting, reflection, and general physics. 2D Compositions 2D compositions are usually favored because of their simplicity. They convey a clear message in a simple manner. 2D Computer Graphics: the computer-based generation of digital images from 2D geometric models. Most animation in done in the 2D area. When animated images have been generated by a computer they are referred to as CGI or Computer Generated Imagery. Animating in 2 Dimensions The earliest form of animated 2D images were created in pixel art. Newer animated compositions are created through using hand-drawn frames and then using coordinate graphics to animate them. (not my image) Keyframing is not as important here as it is in 3D scenes. Animation is based on the concept of frames. Each frame represents some transition in the image being viewed. More complex and professional animations use more frames and do not loop frames. Stuff That I Made There are two ways to create 2D compositions. These are Pixel art and (once again) Vector graphics. Pixel Art: Manipulating Images on the pixel level. This is a fairly primitive way of creating 2D compositions. Vector Geometry: encoding information about the shapes and colors that make up an image This is an example of frames. In flipbook form…. There are three major steps in creating a successful 3D scene.
1) Observe the world to create realistic effects
2) Define what is supposed to be on screen
3) Add details Perspective also plays a large role in making 3D scenes realistic. (not my image) There are many programming techniques that are applicable in determining various things such as shadow direction, light intensity, relative position etc. Interview My interview was conducted with Archana Vaidya of Chicago, IL. She is a freelance graphic designer. Face-to-Face Email and Telephone 1) How is geometry used in the area of graphic design? Word “Geometry” is made of 2 Greek words: "geo" (earth), and "metro" ( measure) geometry refers to the science of measuring and dealing with spatial relations, the relations of objects in space. Geometry makes us understand these spatial relationships, in terms of straight lines, points, curves, surfaces and solids. Geometry and its principles are heavily applied in graphic designing. Properly drawing a house, tree or even a person's portrait requires that a graphic designer be able to translate the spatial relationships of the real world, or of that person's image in mind, into the medium of choice. 2) Explain the concept of vector geometry. Vector geometry is a very complicated way of creating images on a computer. Along with vector geometry there exists coordinate geometry. Vector and coordinate geometry come together to help a computer create images. Coordinate geometry deals with points on the Cartesian plane. Relative positions are graphed by using coordinates in the x, y, and z directions. This is sometimes easier to use because modifying image operations and creating algorithms to implement animation becomes much easier. 3) How does vector geometry play a part in creating complex 2D images? Vector geometry is actually more often used to create 3D images due to its capability to work in the z direction. A vector itself can be described as a ray. In physical terms it is a magnitude that is assigned a direction as well. Scalars are also used in vector geometry and these are basically physical representations of magnitudes. Both of these components of vector geometry can be programmed using programming languages such as C to create animations. 1) Is looking at the proportional size of objects a key part in creating the desired effect? When the principle of proportion is applied to a work of art it is usually in the relationship of size. That is, the size of one element of the composition as compared to the size of another related element. In the instance of a relationship of size a comparison is made between the:
Height, width and depth of one element to that of another, size of one area to the size of another area, size of one element to the size of another element, amount of space between two or more elements Works Cited • Elam, Kimberly. Geometry of Design: Studies in Proportion & Composition. 1. New York, NY: Princeston Architectural Press, 12-13. Print.
• Franklin, Curt. "How 3-D Graphics Work." How Stuff Works. Discovery Channel, n.d. Web. 1 May 2011. .
• "Image types ; 2D computer graphics, Vector graphics, 3D computer graphics." Computer Science. Wordpress, 10 March, 2009. Web. 1 May 2011. .
• Miller, James R. Vector Geometry for Computer Graphics. University of Kansas, 1-8. Print
• Rhoad, Richard, George Milauskas, and Robert Whipple. Geometry: for Enjoyment and Challenge. NEW EDITION. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, Houghton Mifflin, 542. Print.
• "Welcome to GoldenNumber.Net = The PhiSource.com." GoldenNumber. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 May 2011. .
• Wolfram Alpha Mathworld, http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CartesianCoordinate s.html
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector
• Will, George F. "Electronic Morphine." Newsweek 25 Nov. 2002: 92. 3D animation
Use of keyframes 2D animation with 3D camera movement
Light intenstiy and position taken into consideration Pixel graphics used to blend two images together Created through use of Vector geometry