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Unit 1 Anatomy and Physiology

P1 - P7
by

luke hughes

on 10 October 2013

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Transcript of Unit 1 Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology.
The Structure and Function of the Skeletal System.
Unit 1
Luke Hughes
lhughes3@hotmail.co.uk
How this achievement will be demonstrated:

Describe the structure and function of the skeletal system (P1).
Know what the skeletal system
consists of and how it works.
By the end of today's
lesson you will:
In groups make a life size silhouette of the skeleton.
It must contain,
Joints.
All major bones (with enough room to write on).
Must have correct spelling
½ point for correct bone ½ for correct spelling

Be Creative
One member from each group must come to front:
You have 10 seconds to look at diagram.
Return to group and label life size model.
First team to label their model wins.
Task 2
Task 1
Cranium
Scapular (hidden)
Humerus
Tibia
Fibula
Femur
Ischium
Clavicle
Phalanges
Tarsals
Metatarsals
Sternum
Vertebrae
Sacrum
Ilium
Radius
Ulna
Phalanges
Carpals
metacarpals
Patella
Ribs
Part 1 of P1
1. Label a diagram of the skeleton locating the major bones on the worksheet.
The axial skeleton
This forms the main axis or core of your skeletal system. And consists of:
Cranium
Rib cage
Vertebral
Column
The appendicular skeleton
This consists of the following parts.
60 bones from upper limbs.
60 bones from lower limbs.
Part 2 of P1
1. Label a diagram of the skeleton locating the major bones on the worksheet.

2. Describe the Axial and Appendicular skeletons.
Cervical Vertebrae (7): Support the head, allowing it to bend and twist.
Thoracic Vertebrae (12): The ribs are connected to these - there is very little movement
Lumbar Vertebrae (5): These are big and allow powerful twisting and bending of the back.
Sacrum Vertebrae (5): These form one
solid mass which is fused to the pelvis
Coccyx Vertebrae (5): These are the remains of our tail
The vertebral column
Part 3 of P1
1. Label a diagram of the skeleton locating the major bones on the worksheet.

2. Describe the Axial and Appendicular skeletons.

3. Describe the 5 functions of the skeletal system.
Protection
The hard nature of bone means that the skeleton can protect the more delicate parts of the body.
The rib cage protects the delicate heart and lungs.
Functions of the skeletal system
Support
Without the skeleton, the body would be flabby and shapeless.
In this case the bones of the arms are supporting the body.
Movement
The skeleton is jointed to allow us to move when the muscles attached to them contract.
The vertebrae allow us to bend, stretch and rotate our body.
Red and white blood cells are made in red bone marrow which is found at the ends of the femur and humerus.
Blood cell production
Mineral Storage
Minerals such as Calcium
and Potassium are needed in the body and can be stored in our bones.
Essential for bone growth and maintenance of bone health.
Types of Bones
There are 5 main types of bones in the human body.
Each type has a different size and shape because they have different jobs to do.
Long Tubular Bones
– These are long and affect our overall height.
Short Bones
– These are smaller and are often found with many others.
Flat Bones
– These are flat and are often found forming a protective surface.
Irregular Bones/ Sesamoid Bones
– These are irregular in shape and have a specific function. These exist where bones join.
Task 4

Using your notes categorise each of the bones into their corresponding type.

Consider shape and size.

1 point for each correct answer.
Part 5 of P1
1. Label a diagram of the skeleton locating the major bones on the worksheet.

2. Describe the Axial and Appendicular skeletons.

3. Describe the 5 functions of the skeletal system.

4. Label a diagram of the vertebral column to include the 5 regions.

5. Describe the 5 different types of bones.
Joints
The human skeleton is jointed to allow movement.
Muscular contraction causes the bones to move about the joints.
The bones act as levers with the joints acting as pivots.
A joint is where two or more bones meet and muscles act together to cause movement.
Types of Joints
There are 3 main types of joint found in the body
1. Fixed or Immoveable Joints
The bones at an immoveable joint cannot move - they overlap or interlock, and are held together by a tough fibre, e.g. the skull.
2. Slightly Moveable Joints
The bones at a slightly moveable joint can only move
a little - they are held together by strong straps
called ligaments and are joined by protective pads
known as cartilage, e.g. the ribs.
3. Freely Moveable Joints
At a freely moveable joint the bones move freely.
They are also known as synovial joints, and
are the largest group of joints found in the body,
e.g. the hips, shoulders and knees.
Task 1

Using the resource provided match the definition to the the different characteristics of a synovial joint
.

1. Cartilage (hyaline or articular) – A material which covers the end of each bone, and which helps prevent friction between the joint.
2. Synovial Membrane – The inner lining of the joint capsule which also produces synovial fluid.
3. Synovial Fluid – The fluid which surrounds the joint and acts like an ‘oil’, lubricating it to allow easy movement.
4. Ligaments – These are elastic straps which join bone to bone, holding the joint together.
5. Tendons – These are non-elastic straps which join muscle to bone.
Fibula/tibia
Patella
Femur
Types of Synovial Joints
Freely moveable (synovial) joints can be divided into six groups depending upon how they move.

Ball and Socket joints are the most moveable joints in the body.
They can move in all directions, e.g. the hip and shoulder joints
They can only move in two directions, e.g. the knee and elbow joints
Hinge joints work like a hinge on a door
This joint only allows rotation,e.g. the vertebrae of the neck.
Pivot
There is a little movement in all directions, e.g. the hand between the carpals.
Gliding
There is a little movement in all directions, e.g. the hand between the carpals.
Saddle
Here there is a little movement in all directions, but there is no rotation, e.g. the wrist.
Condyloid
Full transcript