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Learning Theories

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Jessica New

on 14 August 2016

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Transcript of Learning Theories


The following Prezi will look at the following five

Behaviourism, Constructivism, Social Constructivism, Humanism and Cognitivism.

We will explore a brief history of these particular theories, techniques used in teaching practice, benefits of the particular method and criticisms of each.

Learning Theories have been developed and explored over the decades by researchers, psychologists, theorists and other professionals interested in the way human beings learn and develop knowledge.

The implications of these learning theories on teaching practice are global and extensive, from the way we deliver programs and information, to the way a classroom may be set up to maximise student engagement.

Social Constructivism
Let’s have a look at where
Social Constructivist Theory
came from.

Social Constructivism
is a theory developed
by Lev Vygostky, published in 1978.
Lev Vygosky was a Psychologist who believed that the role of social interaction and influence was essential to learning and construction of knowledge.

While Vygotsky was originally a Cognitivist, the development of his social constructivist theory differed from the work of other Cognitivists of the time, such as Piaget (Berkeley University of California, 2016)

is a theory which explores both knowledge and learning. It suggests that new knowledge can be constructed by the learner, through building upon one’s prior learning and experiences, rather than via the transmission from one individual (teacher) to another (student) (Kanselaar, 2002).
It highlights learning as an active process, which cannot happen passively.

Jean Piaget, psychologist and philosopher, believed that knowledge cannot “produce representations of an independent reality” (Fosnot, 2013, p. 6), rather that knowledge can be adapted.
Cognitive learning
concentrates on the way a person learns; the brains ability to problem solve and remember. According to the cognitive learning theory, the brain is like a computer that is able to store information that is easy to access.
Cognitivism grew out of the work done by
B. F. Skinner
Behaviourists were moving towards acknowledging that there is something within an organism that plays a role in learning, that learning isn’t only about external stimulus.

Here is the Cognitive Revolution!

Psychologists went from treating learning as an external force upon an organism to seeing the brain as a functional necessity for learning.
Cognitivism can be divided into two further refined theories: the Social Cognitive Theory and the Cognitive Behavioural Theory.
Jean Piaget
was the first psychologist that studied the cognitive ability of children. He theorised that there are four stages of development. At the same time, Vygotsky was also working on his theory.

Aech Digital Encyclopedia of Learning Design. (2015). Classical conditioning [photograph]. Reviewed from https://onlineacademiccommunity.uvic.ca/learningdesign/2015/06/26/classical-conditioning/

Berkeley University of California. (2016). Social Constructivism. Retrieved 4th January 2016, from http://gsi.berkeley.edu/gsi-guide-contents/learning-theory-research/social-constructivism/

Business of dentistry patient appointments and scehuling [Photograph]. Revied from http://www.dentalcare.com/en-US/dental-education/continuing-education/ce426/ce426.aspx?ModuleName=coursecontent&PartID=4&SectionID=0

Cherry, K.A. (2005). Classical conditioning. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classcond.htm

Cooper, Sunny. (2013). Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology [photograph]. Reviewed from http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/Skinner.html

Davidsons Films. (1989). Davidsons film, Jean Piaget [Video]. Reviewed from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QX6JxLwMJeQl

DeCarvalho, Roy Jose. (1991) The founders of humanistic psychology. Praeger publishers.

Drake, Dawn. (2014). Operant Conditioning [photograph]. Reviewed from http://www.slideshare.net/dawndrake/operant-conditioning-chart

E. E. Smith. (2001). Cognitive Psychology: History. Retrieved 9th January 2016, from https://mechanism.ucsd.edu/teaching/w07/.../smith.cogpsychhistory

Flores, Reynaldo. (2013). Behaviorism: Its Strengths and Weaknesses. Reviewed from https://reynaldojrflores.wordpress.com/2013/06/23/224/

Foose, L . [Lindsey]. (n.d.). A photo of a group of preschool children [Pinterest post]. Retrieved 12th January 2016, from https://www.pinterest.com/pin/410742428491978954/

Fosnot, C. (2013). Constructivism: Theory, Perspectives and Practice, (2nd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.

Iz Quotes. (2015). John. B. Watson Quote [photograph]. Reviewed from http://izquotes.com/quote/394215

Kanselaar, G. (2002). Constructivism and Socio Constructivism. Makassar, Indonesia: Hasanuddin University.

Kozloff, M. (1998) Constructivism in Education: Sophistry for a New Age. Retrieved 11th January 2016, from http://pennance.us/home/documents/Constructivism.pdf

Looking at Behaviourism:
Behaviourism is a psychological approach based around the main components of individual behaviours.

Arising from as early as the 19th century, behaviourism influenced psychologists in different ways:
John B. Watson
made a difference in his article
“Psychology as the Behaviourist Views it”, emphasising on external behaviour.
Ivan Pavlov
was known for his work in classical conditioning, a learning process based around stimulus responses.
B. F. Skinner
believed in free will, learning through own actions which led him to conduct Operant conditioning.
(Wikipedia. (2015))

Use a Learning Theory: Behaviourism. (2013).
*Technique 1
- Adding something that will have an interest to a situation that has no interest, so that it combines unconditioned stimuli with neutral stimuli to get a response, known as 'Classical Conditioning'.

*Technique 2
- Applying reinforcements or a punishment. A success or achievement is reinforced with a praise, where if there isn’t a success or achievement, a punishment is by not giving a praise. This is known as 'Operant Conditioning'.
Cherry, K.A. (2005).

“To predict, given the stimulus, what reaction will take place; or, given the reaction, state what the situation or stimulus is that has caused the reaction” – John. B. Watson (1930, p. 11).

A Digital Encyclopedia of Learning Design. (2015).
Drake, Dawn. (2014).
A positive outcome of behaviourism is that it is a confidence and self-esteem booster; the mind changes mentally which leads to a positive rise.

It all relates back to the main focus which is the change in behaviour; a behaviour can change from undesired to desired after all the observations and addressing of the behavioural techniques.
Social Constructivists
have the idea that learners are able to make meaning through sharing knowledge with one another, building on knowledge they may already possess and discovering ways to assimilate new knowledge and ideas.
Doing this socially, by collaborating with others, gives the learner more opportunities to experience a broader range of ideas and information (Swinburne Online, 2016).
In a critical view it is common for critics to argue that the behaviourism approaches are restricted and are seen in a one dimensional point of view. There is much to say, but lack of in-depth detail.

It does not encounter other learning styles and can cause emotional effects,

“A striking feature of the behaviourism is that they tend to invoke strong emotional reactions, usually negative ones.” Kitchener, Richard F. O'Donohue, William T. (1999, p. 9).
Woods, G. (2015).

Iz Quotes. (2015). – John. B Watson
Effective techniques used in
teaching settings may include:

*Working in pairs or small groups
, to share ideas, problem solve, bounce ideas off one another and brainstorm.

*Creating situations
in a teaching environment which require students to seek input for others, such as a class working on the same puzzle or problem with a common goal of problem solving.
(Berkley University of California, 201
A critic of Social Constructivism may suggest that this teaching method leads to ‘group think’, meaning that the group will eventually reach a point of agreeing on and ‘thinking’ the same things.

This criticism is suggesting that dominate people in a group, with a stronger presence and louder ‘voice’ will have a powerful position of influence, directing the group and the eventual outcome
(Kozloff, 1998).
A Prezi brought to you
by Jessica, Esther,
Elise, Mikayla and Alesha
for COM10003 Learning and Communicating online.

Lev Vygotsky
Social Cognitive Theory brings three separate factors, behavioral, environmental and personal together and are seen to be interrelated. When these elements interact learning is said to occur.

Social Cognitive Theory Illustration (Pajares, 2002)

Cognitive Behavioural Theory states that people will form their own self-concept that will in turn affect the behaviour they display. These concepts can be positive or negative and can be affected by the environment.

Social cognitive theory
Cognitive Behavioural theory
shows that when students are actively engaged in their learning, this leads to improved understanding and retention of the content (Perkins, 1999).

allows for critical thinking to be developed whilst learning, by emphasising that only those who can think through the content, are truly able to learn it (Numrich, 2010).

Teachers are able to ask students questions and allow them time to discuss these with their neighbour before choosing students at random to discuss with the class.

Engaging students in experiences that may contradict their original ideas, allows for discussion and adaptation of their knowledge and viewpoints (Lunenberg, 2011).

Constructivist approaches tend to require more time for teachers, resulting in them feeling more under pressure (Perkins, 1999).

Constructivist learning does not work well for every individual, as this approach may require high strains on cognition (Perkins, 1992)
Kitchener, R., O'Donohue, F. & William T. (1999, p. 9). Handbook of Behaviorism, San Diego, California: Academic Press. 1999. ISBN: 9780125241908. Reviewed from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/ehost/ebookviewer/ebook/ZTAwMHh3d19fMjA3NDIyX19BTg2?sid=c0e73d71-ee7e-4c78-84e2-82293aab742a@sessionmgr4001&vid=0&format=EB&rid=1

Numrich, C. (2010). Raise the issues: An integrated approach to critical thinking. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson

Perkins, D. (1999). The Many Faces of Constructivism. Educational Leadership, 57(3), 6-11. Retrieved 12 January, 2016, from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=4c16249e-f995-4029-b3f9-95114d491e92%40sessionmgr111&vid=2&hid=123

Rodgers, C. & Freiberg, H. J. (1994). Freedom to learn (3rd edi) New york: MacMillan.

Role play: Gestalt therapy (2013). Austraian instatute of councellors [Video]. Retrieved from

Sarah Mae Sincero (Mar 11, 2011). Cognitive Learning Theory. Retrieved Jan 9th 2016 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/cognitive-learning-theory

Simply Psychology. (Updated 2015). Jean Piaget. Retrieved 7th January 2016, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html

Simply Psychology. (Updated 2015). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved 7th January 2016, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html

Swinburne Online. (2016). How we learn-we’re all in this together. Retrieved 4th January 2016, from https://ilearn.swin.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-5186955-dt-content-rid-26619223_2/courses/2015-SO3-COM10003-210349/UnitLearningMaterials/week-02.htm

Use a Learning Theory: Behaviorism. (2013). Use a Learning Theory: Behaviorism [Video]. Reviewed from Watson, John. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviourist views it. Psychological Review, Vol 20(2), 158-177.

Wees, D. (2010). What Is Social Constructivism? Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mfIYp_Y9Zkl

Wikimedia. (2016). Lev Vygotsky [photograph]. Retrieved Janurary 12th, 2016, from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/7e/Lev_Vygotsky.jpg

Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. (2015). Behaviourism, Wikipedia foundation Inc. Reviewed from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behaviorism.

Woods, G. (2015). What Are the Benefits of Behavioral Theories? Reviewed from http://www.livestrong.com/article/155516-what-are-the-benefits-of-behavioral-theories/
When we look at cognitivism as a learning tool we notice that a teacher can focus the learning directly to the learner. Then monitor that learning and reinterate any points that the learner missed

The main criticism of Cognitivism is that the
learning is instructor led

Therefore if the teacher doesn't have a thorough understand of the material they are teaching, the student will not be able to learn it.
Maslow hierarchy of needs
Humanism or the humanistic theory
emerged in the 1943 however the first journal of humanistic psychology emerged in 1961. This theory focuses upon recognising human capabilities in areas such as creativity, personal growth and potential Rodgers & Freiberg, H. J. (1994).
The two major theorists associated with this approach were Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow DeCarvallo (1991).

Humanistic theorists believe that every person has a strong desire to realise his or her full potential to reach a level of self-actualisation.
Maslow has been considered the father of humanistic psychology, who theorised the hierarchy of needs with a pyramid explaining the levels of human needs, both psychological and physical. This pyramid goes from the bottom of basic needs to the top, with self actualisation. Maslow theorised that you couldn't advance until the next step in the pyramid until the basic needs were met, thus a person couldn't grow or progress until each of their basic needs were met.
Jean Piaget
Emphasises the individuals choice and responsibility.
Humanism allows and accepts most peoples ideas about what being a human means as it values personal ideas and self fulfillment.
Humanistic psychology provides researchers with with a flexible framework for observing human behaviour because it considers a person in the context of the environment in conjunction with the person's personal perceptions and feelings.
Effective techniques used in humanism:
Reflecting on feelings
Using open questions
Role play/Gustalt empty chair technique.
The critisism in the humanistic theory is that it has a lack of concrete treatment approaches that are not aimed at a specific issue.

As it doesn't directly treat specific issues, it falls short in more severe personality or mental health issues.
As discussed, the five learning theories of Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism, Social Sonstructivism and Humanism are teaching practices which help to enhance learning to maximize student engagement.

Behaviourism focuses on individual behaviours; Cognitivism explores ways of thinking; Constructivism is based on prior learning; Social Constructivism explores social interactions and Humanism recognises human capabilities.

Each theory has specific techniques including areas reflecting stimulation, problem solving, social context and structural strategies. Critics dispute these learning techniques and some claim that they could lead to emotional and personal problems, stating that there is 'no need' for the use of these theories.

(Wees 2010)
Role play Gestalt therapy (2013)
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