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...

ISP Grade 7 St Jean
by

Cherry OnTop

on 27 April 2014

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Transcript of ...

Anaphylaxis
Definition:
a serious life threatening, whole body

allergic reaction
Different Types of Anaphylaxis
Food-induced Anaphylaxis
Insect Venom-induced Anaphylaxis
Exercise-induced Anaphylaxis
Drug/Medication Anaphylaxis
•approx. 35% to 55% of anaphylaxis cases are caused by food allergies
Western Culture
Peanuts
Wheat
Tree Nuts
Shellfish
Fish
Milk
Eggs
Middle East
Sesame
Asia
Rice
Chickpeas

(allergies that are usually not outgrown)
Children & Adults
peanuts
tree nuts
shellfish
fish
Children

(allergies that are usually outgrown)
Milk
Egg
Wheat
Other Types of Anaphylaxis
Soy
Angioedema of the face caused by an allergen exposure.
about 0.5% to 5%, or 170 thousand to 1 million 700 thousand Canadians are sensitive to one or more insect venoms of the Hymenoptera order
Hymenoptera
Triatominae
At least 40-100 deaths per year
Incidence rising due to more outdoor activities
first reported in 1979
Predisposing factors:
indigestion of certain foods
cheese
fruits
occuring after a mild to strenuous physical activity
shell fish
condition is not well known
Four phases of EIA
most common
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Beta-lactam antibiotic
approx. 6%-8% of children have food allergies
approx. 1%-2% of adults have food allergies
Accidental food exposures are common and unpredictable
Incidence is increasing
150 deaths per year
Usually caused by a known allergy
Incidence increasing due to fire ants and bees
Triggered by almost any physical activity
estimated that 1 in 2700 hospitalized patients experiences drug-induced anaphylaxis
Latex Induced Anaphylaxis
Radiocontrast media (iodine)
1%–6% of the US population (up to 16 million) are affected
3%–18% incidence among health care workers
Repeated exposure leads to a higher risk
Incidence has increased since mid 1980s
Proteins in natural rubber latex
Triggers
Component of about 40,000 commonly used items
Elastic (undergarments)
Rubber bands
Hospital and dental equipment
Latex-dipped products
Balloons
gloves
bandages
and rubber toys
pacifiers
Stats
more than 50 percent of Canadians know someone with a life-threatening allergy
they are a growing public health issue in Canada
In Canada, they affect two out of 100 children
Anaphylaxis to aspirin and NSAIDs occurs in about one in every 50,000 persons
Pathogenesis
Sensitization Stage
Anaphylactic Stage
32 deaths per year
Diagnosing & Testing Anaphylaxis
Skin Testing
Prick Test
Intradermal Test
Patch Test
Blood Testing
Step-by-Step Intructions When A Reaction Occurs
Types of Medicines
Get emergency treatment even if symptoms are improving by the minute.
7
8
Have the person lie on his/her back.
Histamine Antagonist:
drugs that combat the histamine released during an allergic reaction
combats histamine by blocking the action of the histamine on the TISSUE
Types of Histamine Antagonist
H2 Antagonist
H1 Antagonist
Blocks the effects of histamine on vascular, bronchial, and gastrointestinal muscles
acts on H1 receptor
Benadryl (diphenhydramine) and Chlor-Trimeton (chlorpheniramine)
reduces the secretion of gastric acid
acts on H2 receptor
Tagamet (Cimetidime)
Epinephrine:
aka adrenaline
hormone and neurotransmitter
body naturally produces in response to stress
works on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to tighten blood vessels and relax the chest muscles
must be administered by injection and is accessible as self-administration devices (epi-pen, twinjet)
drug of choice for reactions
is a crucial component of the fight-to fight response of the sensitive nervous system
should be given early to help stop or slow down the reaction
EpiPen
What is it?
automatic injection device that administers epinephrine in the event of a severe allergic reaction
it helps decrease your body's allergic reaction by:
relaxing muscles in your airways to make breathing easier
helping to reverse the fast and dangerous decrease in blood pressure
relaxing the muscles in the stomach, intestines and bladder o_o
Other Facts........
EpiPens are designed for self-injection, but it is very dangerous to believe that any person, will be able to self-inject if the reaction is happening rapidly
crucial that a person suffering an anaphylactic reaction be taken to the hospital even if epinephrine has been injected
Comes in 2 dosage strengths:
ALWAYS REMEMBER TO REFILL YOUR PRESCRIPTION
EpiPen
EpiPen Jr
How to use an epi-pen
1.
2.
3.
Take out the EpiPen Auto-injector from carrier tube
Hold the EpiPen Auto-injector tightly with the orange tip (needle) pointing down
4.
Take out the blue safety release
Swing and push orange tip tightly into mid-outer thigh until you hear a "click"
Avoiding Allergy Triggers Whenever Possible
If you have a food allergy:
always check product labels and be aware that some ingredients may have other names
food may contain unknown ingredients
restaurants may prepare their food using utensils that come in contact with your allergen
there is no ingredient list provided
you don't recognize an ingredient
label says "may contain..." your trigger, "does contain..." your trigger, "may have come into contact with.." your trigger
If you are allergic to insect bites:
avoid wearing perfume
use insect repellent
wear long sleeves and pants
avoid insects and nests
when in contact with an insect, stay calm and move
away slowly
cover all food when outdoors
avoid wearing bright colours or perfumes
wear shoes with closed toes
avoid going barefoot outside
If you are allergic to insect stings:
Anaphylaxis
If you are allergic to latex:
avoid ALL products that contain latex
read labels carefully
look for latex free items
tell your health professional/provider about your allergy
If you are allergic to medication:
tell your healthcare provider about your allergy to the drug
avoid taking drugs that you are allergic to
ask your healthcare professional/provider about alternative medication
tell all your healthcare professional/provider that you deal with (doctor, dentist, pharmacist, etc)
If you have exercise induced anaphylaxis:
avoiding exercise during extremely cold or hot weather
attacks are associated with ingestion of food, avoiding the offending food for 12 hours prior to exercise
no offending food is known, then the patient should avoid eating any food 6-8 hours prior to exercise
restricting exercise during allergy season or humid weather
Humid weather
Hot weather
Cold weather
Signs and Symptoms
Other Signs & Symptoms
Hay Fever (allergic rhinitis)
sneezing
change in voice
swelling of the lips, face and eyes
A
A
A
wareness
voidance
ction
:
:
:
see an allergist for diagnosis
find out what to avoid
know what to do in an urgent situation
learn about your allergy
be aware that delayed reactions can occur
learn to recognize alternative names for food
read labels every time
wash hands before and after eating
clean counters, tables and utensils well to avoid cross contamination
be cautious in restaurants
Story of Sabrina Shannon and her Law
was 15 when she died
allergic to dairy products, peanuts and soy
died because of cross contamination
allergic reaction was the result of food-induced anaphylaxis
If the person says he or she needs/has to use an auto-injector,
ask if you should help inject the medication.
If they are vomiting/bleeding from the mouth, turn him/her on his/her
side to avoid choking
Ask the person if he/she is carrying an epinephrine auto-injector
If there are no signs of breathing,
coughing or any other movement, begin
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
Loosen tight clothing and don’t give the person anything to drink
Immediately call 911 or your local medical emergency number
1
3
4
5
6
2
Twinject
What is it?
epinephrine auto injector that administers a dose of epinephrine. It has a back-up dose in cased in one device
easy to follow step-by-step instructions printed on the side of the auto injector
small/slim, crush-resistant case
Thin needle
Available in 2 dosage strengths:
Twinject 0.15mg
Twinject 0.3mg
Each Twinject comes with..........
:"Epinephrine must be administered promptly at the first warning symptoms, such as itching or swelling of lips or mouth, tightening of the throat or nausea, and before respiratory discomfort, or wheezing occur" ~Canadian Paediatric Society
wear a medicalert bracelet and carry epinephrine
ensure additional epinephrine is available
Allergy Challenge
Prodromal phase: characterized by tiredness, warmth, and itching
The early phase: Skin eruption that progresses from giant hives may include angioedema of the face, palms, and soles
Fully established phase: low blood pressure, loss of consciousness, choking, stridor, nausea, and vomiting (30 minutes to 4 hours)
Late or post-exertional phase: long term hives and headache persisting for 24-74 hours.
Old Design
New Design
EpiPen Jr
EpiPen
do NOT eat any food items if
http://allergicliving.com/index.php/2010/09/15/sabrinas-nutty-tale
Full transcript