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Exam 2- Cell Bio

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Kenyada Williams

on 11 October 2016

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Transcript of Exam 2- Cell Bio

Growth
During G1 the cell is growing and preparing for DNA replication.

This means that the cell is making the necessary proteins to undergo DNA replication.


How is it regulated?
Protein Synthesis
How is it regulated?
S-CDK: Cyclin A- CDK 1- Proteins that control the progression of the cell cycle.


Synthesis Phase
The Cell Cycle
G1-Phase
S-Phase
Exam 2 Overview- Cell Bio
Initiation signals: Cyclins D binds to CDK 4/6.

Once active the Cdk/Cyclin complex phosphorylates proteins required to drive the cell cycle forward

This process acts as molecular “checks and balances” ensuring all is ready before the cell proceeds

Changes in cellular concentrations of cyclins controls the cell cycle (controlled by translation and protein degradation)


EXPLAIN EACH STEP
Steps:
1: Transcription
2: RNA Processing
3: Translation
DNA Replication
Once active the Cdk/Cyclin complex phosphorylates proteins required to drive the cell cycle forward

This process acts as molecular “checks and balances” ensuring all is ready before the cell proceeds

Changes in cellular concentrations of cyclins controls the cell cycle (controlled by translation and protein degradation)
Key Players

G2- Phase

Growth and Development phase.
At this point DNA has been replicated and the cell has twice the amount of DNA as a normal body cell. Now we need to prepare to enter mitosis. For mitosis we will need double the organelles as well as additional proteins needed to function in the mitotic process.
Mitosis
What if things go wrong?
When things go wrong during the cell cycle it often leads to cancer, disease and other disorders. Remember every process in the cell is coded for by DNA. (DNA makes proteins and proteins copy and transcribe DNA)

Cancer is the result of cells not receiving the proper signals. There are check points for misssignaling but what if the check points are broken?

Protein folding disorders are a major class of disease caused by proteins folding incorrectly.
Ex: Amyloidoses – accumulation of insoluble proteins (densely packed β-sheets) in the extracellular tissue
P53 Mutations
p53 is a gene that codes for proteins that control the cell cycle and work to suppress tumor function (When it works properly). If there are mutations in p53 the cell cycle may continue despite cellular damage.(ie. Cancer)
Chemo Therapy & Radiation
Chemotherapeutic drugs often target different stages in the cell cycle, (among other things). Therefore chemotheraputic drugs work best on rapidly dividing cells. Quiescent cells or cells in G0 are not dividing and therefore are usually safe from the drugs effect.

As mentioned, Chemotherapeutic drugs
Camptothecin (Topo I) and Doxorubicun (Topo II) target topoisomerase molecules causing them to malfunction and allow double stranded/single stranded DNA breaks. During S- phase the cell will be unable to replicate the DNA and the cell will not continue through cell division.

Example of proper p53 Regulation
End product is two identical daughter cells.

Details TBA- this is not on your exam...well talk about it later

Note: M-Cyclins = Cyclin B with CDK
The End !
Questions?
Good luck on your exam :)
By: kENYADA wILLIAMS
Questions to consider:

What is happening during G1 and which type of enzymes regulate this step in the cell cycle?

What is the significance of kinases?

Which types of proteins are necessary to enter S phase?

How is energy involved?


Transcription
RNA PROCESSING
Translation
Questions to Consider:
What are they key players in DNA Replication?

Why is DNA replication important?

What happens if there is damage to the DNA?

How did the DNA get damaged in the first place?

How is DNA replicated?

What happens if an error results in a mutation?
Full transcript