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Filipino Cultural Presentation
Transcript of Filipino Cultural Presentation
Family systems are traditionally patriarchal with a male authority figure, but authoritarian matriarchal figures can be present if male relatives are deceased (Giger, 2013).
Respect for elders, never question their authority, and obedience to the elders is met with their protection. Elders are taken care of without being viewed as a burden (Giger, 2013).
Regional differences are present and Filipinos tend to socialize with people from the same area (Giger, 2013).
Predominately Roman Catholic due to early influence of Spanish missionaries (Giger, 2013).
Family is the most important social unit in Filipino culture. Family plays a central role in the lives of Filipinos and it is “the most important source of happiness” (Doorenbos et al, 2011).
Family plays an integral role during time of illness. There are strong expectations that family will provide care, bring comforting food, and remain at the bedside during family illness.
Health care decisions may be expected to be deferred to the family, especially during times of terminal illness.
Short and small framed in comparison to other ethnic groups.
Mongoloid characteristics present including, brown skin, almond shaped inner eye folds, and sparse body hair (Giger, 2013).
Genetically there is a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G-6-PD) and alpha-thalassemia (also known as hemoglobin H disease).
Heart disease, cancer, and stroke are the leading causes of death among Filipino Americans.
Highest prevalence of hypertension among individuals of Asian descent and compared to non-Hispanic whites (Ursua et al, 2013).
High prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (Soriano, 2013).
Compared to other Asian populations, they have a higher incidence of thyroid and prostate cancer and the poorest 5 year survival rate for cancers compared to all other ethnic groups (Giger, 2013).
High mortality rates from both prostate and breast cancer among Asian populations (Soriano, 2013).
Predominately have an external locus of control—belief in supernatural forces having influence over what happens.
Use of folk healers and folk medicine along with Western medicine.
Illness can be caused by natural causes (i.e. overeating) or supernatural causes (i.e. spirits).
Hot/Cold theories of health and illness.
Flushing, heating, and protection theories maintain balance of health.
Four humors: mucus, air, bile, and blood. For example, mal aire can mean exposure to air or wind that causes a cold.
Six Health Phenomena
The Giger and Davidhizar transcultural assessment model is a useful tool that helps in conducting assessments on every individual considered culturally unique which is the primary foundation of the model.
Nurses need to be aware of the six categories that the model provides because they are important aspects to consider when conducting an assessment on a client.
The Giger and Davidhizar transcultural assessment model is developed to identify which factors need to be considered during an assessment according to six cultural phenomena which are :
1. communication 4. time
2. space 5. environmental control
3. social organization 6. biological variations
Local Opportunities for Cultural Development
In 2010 the Philippine Heritage Enrichment Complex and Garden was opened in Okeechobee, FL.
Owned by the Philippine American Cultural Foundation of Florida, it serves to educate the local community about the art, culture, and traditions of the Philippines.
Events have included the PhilFiesta that highlighted Philippine customs.
The garden includes the national flower of the Philippines, the sampaguita.
Filipino Cultural Presentation
Display of Filipino Wedding Attire
Doorenbos, A. Z., Abaquin, C., Perrin, M. E., Eaton, L., Balabagno, A. O., Rue, T., & Ramos, R. (2011). Supporting dignified dying in the Philippines . International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 17(3), 125-130. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.12968/ijpn.2011.17.3.125
Giger, J. N. (2013). Transcultural Nursing Assessment and Intervention (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Smith, J. (2012). Jeremy's guide to pinoy body language. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from
Soriano, R.M. (2013) The Health Status of Filipino-Americans. Journal of Nursing Practice Applications & Reviews of Research, 4(1), 55-67. doi:10.13178/jnparr.2014.0401.1819.
Stanford School of Medicine. (2016). Ethnogeriatrics. Retrieved from http://geriatrics.stanford.edu/ethnomed/filipino/assessment/verbal_communication.html
Ursua, R. A., Islam, N. S., Aguilar, D. E., Wyatt, L. C., Tandon, S. D., Abesamis-Mendoza, N., ... Trinh-Shevrin, C. (2013, April 4th, 2013). Predictors of Hypertension Among Filipino Immigrants in the Northeast US. Journal of Community Health, 38, 847-855. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10900-013-9689-6
Grooms shirt made of pineapple fibers
Bride and Groom in Filipino Wedding Attire
Video Description of Wedding Attire
Filipino Culinary Demonstration
Video Description of Recipe
Giger and Davidhizar's transcultural assessment model measures a patient's communication qualities in various ways. Giger defines communication as, "a continuous process by which one person may affect another through written or oral language, gestures, facial expressions, body language, space or other symbols" (p. 19). We will cover an overview of common communication techniques seen in the Philippines. Nurses can then use this information to apply to their care given to patients of this culture and background.
Languages spoken in the Philippines
The national language of the Philippines is Tagalog and also known as Filipino. English is widely used for business and in schools as well. Tagalog and English are ofter spoken together in social, health and business manners and referred to as Taglish (Giger, 2013). There are many dialects spoken in the Philippines though and over 80 percent of people there speak one of eight common dialects (Giger, 2013). It is important for the nurse to assess not only which language a Filipino patients speaks but also what dialect they speak.
Common Filipino phrases from English to Tagalog:
Good Morning: Magandang Umaga Po
Good Afternoon: Magandang Hapon Po
How are you?: Kumusta po kayo?
What can I do for you?: Ano po ang mayipaglilingkod ko?
Thank you: Salamat po
You are welcome: Wala pong anuman
No: Hindi po/Hindi ho
(Stanford School of Medicine 2016).
Picture retrieved from http://iloko.tripod.com/Philmap.gif
Major Languages of The Philippines
Tone, Context, & Space
Filipinos are usually soft-spoken individuals and may only raise their voices when angry (Giger, 2013). They tend to avoid disagreements with authority figures, appreciate modesty, and do not openly discuss private topics such as socioeconomic status, sex, and tuberculosis for example (Giger, 2013). Filipinos are comfortable at a closer distance to others than seen in the American culture. They strive for closeness within family and this can be seen by the way they stand closer together (Giger, 2013).
Filipino Non-Verbal Communication
A few non-verbal communication techniques used are the use of silence in a conversation (to portray either approval or discontent), the tendency to agree with authority even though they disagree, and the elderly being kissed on the hand, forehead, or cheeks as a sign of respect (Giger, 2013). Also, Filipinos can be seen pointing with the lips and never pointing their fingers, raising their eyebrows to say hello, and using their whole hands to direct someone. This video shows some of the common facial gestures used by Filipinos.
• The Filipino culture believes that the present is influenced by the past, but the present also has an influence on the future.
• They are clock-oriented
• They attempt to sleep 8 hours a night and attempt to stay on a consistent sleep and wake cycle
• They understand the importance of taking prescribed medications and adhering to treatment plans.
• Many people in the culture wear a watch and some even have an alarm function
• If an appointment were to be at 2 P.M. an acceptable time to arrive would be 1:30 P.M.-1:45 P.M.
• If someone were to invade a Filipino’s space they would move away.
• A normal distance for conversation is 18 inches to 3 feet.
• They are comfortable with a distance of 18 inches to 3 feet when talking or standing near others.
• Objects in the room should be free of clutter to promote a more cozy environment
• When talking with female family members they tend to stand closer than they would with a male family member
• When communicating with coworkers a distance of 18 inches to 3 feet is comfortable
• If a stranger touches them they would feel angry, embarrassed and awkward
National Geographic Street Food Around The World - Manila, Philippines
Bayanihan Philippine Dance Tinikling
The Philippine National Anthem
Food items found at a Filipino grocery store in San Diego, CA