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Maria Mas

on 25 February 2013

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bones NEOLITIC they worked with old stone they were nomads its meaning stone but polished they worked in: agriculture livestock collection MESOPOTAMIA AFTER THE PREHISTORY Writting WRITING 3000AC only used for administrative
accounts bring the comunity The earliest writings that
have been found on: clay formed by lines drawings (pictograms). EGYPT The Sumarians It was the first Mesopotamian civilization 3.100 The calendar Nilotic focused on the annual fluctuations of the Nile and its goal
was the regulation of agricultural work during the year. they worked in
the agriculture developed in the rivers
Tigris and Eufrates They painted Egyptians only painted in profile The painting of ancient Egypt was eminently symbolic and religious funeral. ROMAN EMPIRE Rome was on the River Tiber on the Italian Peninsula This peninsula is in the centre of the Mediterranean Consequently, it is a strategic location and enabled the Romans to extend their territories on Europe, Africa and Asia Conquered all the territories
on the Italian Peninsula
between 500 and 250 BC It continued to expand
across the Mediterranean Between the 1st and 2nd
centuries AD, Roman territories
stretched north to south from the
British Isles to the Sahara Desert,
and east towest from Mesopotamia
to the Iberian Peninsula. included people of many different ethnic groups They were made slaves if they tried to resist Roman rule. The romans spread Latin, their
laws and their way of life The empire was organised into provinces Each province was controlled by a governor appointed by the emperor On the 3rd century the Roman Empire suffered a
crisis CONSEQUENTLY 1-Peasants and soldiers revolted and anarchy spread.
2-The cities were attacked, and the population sought refuge in the country.
3. The power of the emperors dimished because they were unable to solve these problems Germanic tribes invaded from the north.
The Romans called these peoples "barbarians"
The Persians attacked from the east The recovery of the 4th century Diocletian reforms were carried out to resolve the problems in the empire. The economy recovered, and the frontiers were stengthened. Constantine tolerated Christianity. He moved the capital to the Constantinople and improved bureaucracy After the emperor Theodosius died 395, the empire was divided into two, so that it could be defended more easily. The Western Roman Empire had its capital in Rome The Eastern Roman Empire The capital was Constantinople.
Each empire had its own emperor
and its own institucions. In 476 they deposed the last Western Roman Emperor, bringing the empire to an end The fall of the Roman Empire The Eastern Empire was maintained for another thousand years, but under a new name: Byzantine Empire GREECE There were two civilations: minoica y micenica, (betwen XIII and XII a. C.) two important cities:
Atenas and Esparta. Ancient Greece consisted of several hundred city-state (polis) There were temples The Roman society Roman society was unequal. There were two groups:
-Citiziens: had rights. They could own property, go to trials, vote and get married.
-Non-citiziens: had none of these rights. They could be feerdmen or slaves. Slaves could become free if their owner gave them their freedom
-Women: were never considered citiziens, so they had practically no rights THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES The Germanic kingdoms The Fraks, in France
The Visigoths, in Spain
The Ostrogoths, and later the Lombards, in Italy
The Angles and the Saxons, in Britian The Visigoths Entered the Roman Empire at the end of the 4th century to escape from the Huns. In 410, the Visigoths attacked Rome. Six years later, Honorius, the Emperor of the West, asked the Visigoths for help to expel other Germanic people from the Iberian Peninsula. In exchange, they received lands in south-east Gaul (France) At the beginning of the 6th century, the Franks expelled the Visigoths from Gaul. and the Visigoths conquered the Iberian Peninsula and made Toledo its capital. The Visigothic kingdom reached its peak during the 6th and 7th centuries. King Leovigild extended his territory and made new laws. His son Reccared became a Catholic, and his kingdom also became Catholic. During the second half of the 7th century, there was constant fighting between the kings and nobles. The Visigothic kingdom disappeared after the Muslim invasion in 711. The Byzantine Empire The most important Byzantine emperor was Justinian. He ruled with his wife Theodora between 527 and 565. Justinian tried to rebuild the Roman Empire. His armies conquered many territories in North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula and Italy. A slow decline

After Justinian's death the Byzantine Empire began to lose territory.
By the 15th century, only Constantinople remained. In the 1453, the city was conquered by the Turks. For some historians, this marked the end of the Middle Ages. The tradition and religion

At the first, the Byzantine Empire followed the traditions of the Roman Empire. After Justinian's reign, however, it adopted an increasing number of Greek customs.
In the 1054, there was a separation between the Roman Catholic Church and the Byzantine Orthodox Church, called the East-West Schism.
In the Byzantine Empire, religion affected life and culture and caused disagreement. In the 8th century, the emperors tried to prohibit the workship of holy icons. This decisions caused riots. ART
The Byzantine Empire produced some impressive religious art. They created: Churches with a Greek-cross plan and large domes. The Hagia Sophia is the best example.
Mosaics which covered the walls and ceilings of churches and palaces. Islam The Arabs lived in tribes, and these tribes were often in conflict with each other. Each tribe had its own beliefs. All of them, however, were polytheists, and Mecca was their holy place. Muhammad was a merchant from Mecca. He learned about two monotheistic religions, Judaism and Christianity and preached a new religion: Islam. Islam taught that people should worship Allah. The rich merchants of Mecca thought that Muhammad was a danger to society. Consequetly, he moved to Medina in 622. This date is known as the Hegira, and marks the start of the Muslim calendar, and in 628 he conquered Mecca. The Koran is the sacred book of the Muslims. Muslims have five obligations. These are called the five pillars The highest authority of the empire was the caliph. The first were direct descendants of Muhammad.
In 661, Caliph Ali was assassinated and the Umayyad family took power. The Umayyad period, the title of caliph became hereditary. They conquered many territories, from Persia to the Iberian Peninsula. Internal fighting broke up the empire. After the 13th century, the Turks were the most powerful people in the Islamic world. The Carolingian Empire After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Frankish kingdom was established in France. The king were weak. The most important of these was Charles Martel. He defeated the Muslims in France, at the Battle of Tours in 732. Pippin the Short was succeded by his son Charlemagne, who wanted to restore the Western Roman Empire. He conquered Italy and the Iberian Peninsula. In 800, the Pope crowned Charlemagne as the new Emperor of the West. Charlemagne divided the Empire into counties. He appointed military governors to control the marches. Charlemagne's kingdom was divided among his sons. Charlemagne had one surviving son, Louis the Pious. When he died, the Empire was divided among his sons: Charles, Louis and Lothair. They signed theTra¡eaty of Verdun which confirmed the division. FEUDAL SOCIETY New invasions From about 850 to about 1100, Europe was divided and weak. This led to a second wave of invasions:
The Viking came from Scandinavia.
The Magyars or Hungarians came from the steppes of Asia.
The Saracens were Muslim pirates. The origin of feudalism
After the Carolingian Empire, Europe was divided into numerous kingdoms. The kings were very weak and could not protect their lands. As the peasants could not depend on the king's protection, they turned to the nobles. Nobles had their own armies and castles. In exchange for protection, the peasants had to work for the nobles. They became the nobles' serfs. Feudalism: a new social system
Under feudalism, great nobles had complete control over their lands. The king's power was limited to the lands he controlled directly. Nobles governed in the king's name in exchange for a fief became the king's vassals by accepting the king's supremacy. They did this at a ceremony where they paid homage. They promised to govern the land which they had been given, and to provide troops and fight for the king when necessary. The lords could also have vassals, nobles of a lower rak and received a smaller fief. A fief What was a fief?
-Nobles received land in exchange for swearing allegiance to the king. This land was called fief. Each fief had a castle where the lord lived. There were also villages where the peasants lived, agricultural land and pasture and forests. -Part of the land on the fief, called the demesne was used by the lord himself. Everything grown there was his. -The rent was paid in money, products or work on the lord's land. The fiefs also had large forests which belonged to the lord. He decided when the peasants could hunt there or collect firework. - The lords administred justice and collected taxes. The peasants had to pay a tax to use the mill, the oven and the press. The lords also took a toll or tax, from the merchants who crossed their bridges ans their land. Medieval society -Medieval society was divided into three groups called estates:
*The nobles were the knights and their families.
*The clergy were the monks and priests.
*The workers were mainly peasants and also craftsmen and merchants. -The nobles and the clergy were privileged estates and so they had advantages. They did not pay taxes, they did not do work, and they held the most important positions in government. The Clergy -The Catholic Church was present in all of Western Europe. The Pope in Rome was the head of the Church. The Pope had great influence, and he could excommunicate a king. Below the Pope there were: bishops, diocese, parishes, priests, abbots, friars, monks and nuns. MEDIEVAL CITIES Agriculture and population -Agricultural production started to increase from the 12th century.
*New land was created by cutting down forests and dinning marshes.
*The three-year system of crop rotation.
*The mouldboard plough
*Irrigation became more widespread and new crops were introduced.
*Greater use of wind and water mills. AS A RESULT Food production increased and there was less hunger. As a result, there was a sharp population increase. The trade -The trade developed quickly from the 12th century. Products were transported by land, river and sea. There were two important sea routes:
*The Mediterranean route linked Spanish and Italian cities with Muslim ports and the Byzantine Empire.
*The Atlantic and Baltic route was dominated by merchants' association, the Hanseatic League. The route linked the ports of Portugal and Cantabria with Flemish, German and Russian cities. The cities -Cities began to grow in the 12th century. Some old cities were revived. New cities appeared near a castle or monastery, at a crossroads or on a trade route. - The causes of urban growth were:
*New farming techniques resulted in less work for people. Many peasants had to migrate to cities to find work.
*There was a revival in trade. Many merchants went to live in the cities where the markets were.
*Cities offered peasants a better life. They were not controlled by feudal lords. All the inhabitants were free. Different kinds of people lived in cities:
*Some merchants were very rich
*Most were craftsmen, shopkeepers or worked in domestic service.
*Some were poor. They had no work and had to beg. In the cities, most of the population were Christians. There were also groups of Jews who lived in ghettoes or in Jewish quarters. On the Iberian Peninsula, there were Islamic people who lived in Moorish quarters. Craftsmen
Guilds -Population grew and, consequently, there was greater demand for clothes and objects made of wood and metal. The number of craftsmen increased. There were weavers, coopers, stone masons, bakers, carpenters and dyers.
-Craftsmen made their products by hand. They worked in small workshops. Craftsmen of the same profession often lived in the same street. These streets were named after trades. Monarchies - In the 12th century, medieval economies improved and the kings collected more taxes. They created their own armies. They strengthened the governments in their kingdoms.
-In the cities the kings began to take power from the nobles. They gave charters of liberties, which became free or feudal dependence. In exchange, the citizens supported the king against the feudal lord. -The kings began to create parliaments. The persons who were represented were the king, the nobles, the clergy and the city mayors.
Parliaments only met when the king called a meeting. ROMANESQUE ART From the 11th century, a new style of art spread throughout Western Europe. It is known as Romanesque because it is reminiscent of Roman art
Romanesque art aimed to spread religion and bring people closer to God.
*In architecture, the most representative buildings were the Church, cathedrals and monasteries.
*Sculpture and painting were used to convey spirituality.
The use of symbols was very important.
The artists were mostly anonymous craftsmen. Romanesque architecture The main Romanesque buildings were made of stone
The architects used Roman elements such as barrel vaults and domes.
The buildings had rounds arches and big columns and pillars.
The Churches were usually cruciform. Romanesque sculpture In the Middle Ages, art had an educational and religious function.
The sculptures were painted in bright colours.
The facades of the churches, were decorated with subjects such as Christ in Glory and the Last Judgement.
The capitals and the cloisters were decorated with animals, plant, Biblical stories, and everyday scenes.
There were wooden carvings, usually on the altars. Two main themes were shown: the Virgin and Child and Christ on the Cross.

Romanesque painting The most important paintings were inside churches.
Human figures were rigid and schematic. Bright colours were used.
*Mural painting was common on walls especially in the main apse near the altar.
*Panel painting was used on altars and small altapieces.
*Miniatures were small paintings which illustrated bibles and manuscripts. GOTHIC ART Gothic sculpture At the end of the 12th century, the Romanesque style gave way to the Gothic style, which originated in France, and quickly spread throughout Europe. Gothic sculpture had a religious and educational purpose.
Figures were not adapted to fit architecture. They became independent more realistic and natural.
Stone was the most commonly used material, but wood became increasingly popular. Altarpieces in la Seo Cathedral, Zaragoza Gothic painting Mural painting became less common, and replaced by large stained glass windows. With the miniatures used to illustrate books, were the most important types of painting at first. Later painting on wood.
Paintings represented religious icons, but portraits also became important.
Gothic architecture Gothic art was religious, but it also showed the power and wealth of the cities. The most representative building was the cathedral, and it became the centre of the city. THE END CREATED BY: MARIA MAS MATAS 2ºE
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