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Transcript of The Universe
-began his career as a high school teacher and then later a lawyer.
- finally he decided to study astronomy.
- Using many telescopes in California, he photographed and recorded far away galaxies and studied their spectra. The Doppler Effect Redshift & Blueshift The Expanding Universe The BIG BANG theory Evidence of the Big Bang Theory COBE and WMAP The James Webb Space Telescope CERN COBE WMAP Hubble Space Telescope -The change in frequency of a light source due to its motion relative to an observer; also, the change in pitch of a sound due to the motion of the source relative to an observer.
-It was first explained in 1842 by a man named Christian Doppler.
-An example of the Doppler Effect is the change in sound when an ambulance’s siren passes by. When the ambulance is approaching you, the sound waves are compressed making them have a higher frequency or in other words, higher pitch. When the ambulance is moving away from you, the sound waves are lengthened making them have a lower pitch.
-Light waves work in a similar way to sound waves. Redshift
The effect in which objects moving away from an observer have their wavelengths lengthened, toward the red end of the visible spectrum.
The effect in which objects moving toward an observer have their wavelengths shortened, toward the blue end of the visible spectrum. - In 1929, Edwin Hubble and American astronomer, Milton L. Humason made a discover
-they discovered that the speed of a galaxy which is determined through its redshift corresponds to the distance between the galaxy and the Earth.
- This relationship between the speed of a galaxy which corresponds with its distance from Earth is known as the Hubble Law.
- The Hubble Constant is the rate at which the universe is expanding - The big bang is the possible event that may have triggered the expansion of the universe 14 billion years ago.
-According to this theory, a very tiny volume of space suddenly and rapidly expanded to an immense size.
- It is believed that the whole universe violently exploded many years ago and it continues to evolve every day. - In 2014, NASA plans to remove the Hubble Space Telescope.
- So in 2013 they plan to launch a new telescope called the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).
- The JWST has the ability to see even further than the HST can.
- Also the mass of the JWST’s mirror is half the mass of the HST mirror even though is much smaller than that.
- The JWST’s main mission is to find the first galaxies that were formed after the Big Bang. - In 1948 Gamow predicted that the CMB radition in the universe cooled to -260c
- In 1965 Robert WIlson and Arno Penzias accidentally discovered this background radiation.
- At the Bell Telephone Lab work they discovered the microwave noice that was produced by radiation left over from the big bang when searching for noises such as static
- with this discovery they won the Noble Prize in 1978 - COBE : Cosmic Background Explorer, 1989
- WMAP : Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, 2001
- designed to measure the CMB radiation left over from the big bang.
- WMAP images have more detail
- It showed tiny temperature variations in different colors as wanted - an organization is Switzerland; Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire
- full- scale operation of the worlds most powerful machine for studying particles at high energies
- Tim Berners- Lee invented the World Wide Web at CERN - Hubble and Humason's distance-redshift relationship
- CMB: Cosmic Microwave Background radiation
- The Radiation left over from the big bang, which fills the universe
- As the universe expanded the wavelengths of gamma rays stretched.
- wavelengths turned from gamma rays to visible light
- CMB radiation has a wave length of only 1.07 < ----------------------
decreasing temperature Questions ! (: 1.) The redshift is towards the yellow end of the visible end of the spectrum
T or F
2.) This relationship between the speeds of a galaxy which corresponds with its distance from Earth is known as the Hubble Law
T or F
3.) The Doppler Effect is known to have spectral lines correctly placed from their normal position
T or F
4.) Light waves behave in a different way than sound waves
T or F
5.) The Hubble constant is the rate at which the universe is expanding
T or F 6.) Edwin Hubble photographed and recorded far away __________ and studied their _______________.
7.) The JWST’s main mission is to find the __________ _________ that were formed after the Big Bang.
8.) The big bang is the possible event that may have triggered the __________ of the universe _____ billion years ago.
9.) It is believed that the whole universe violently ___________ many years ago and it continues to evolve every day.
10.) The __________ and _______images are pictures of CMB radiation.
11.) As the universe expands, the wavelength of the ________ rays stretched.