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Geronimo, Sitting Bull, & Chief Joseph - Indian Response
Transcript of Geronimo, Sitting Bull, & Chief Joseph - Indian Response
Indian Response Chief Joseph Sitting Bull What's Important Geronimo Sioux indian, born in "Dakota Territory" in 1831 Thanks to the federal governments "Manifest Destiny" policies, Native Americans were often seen as simply obstacles. Indian Violence
Native American populations had been repeatedly pushed farther west. Numerous battles took place until the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie, which granted the Sioux a large reservation. http://www.ndstudies.org/resources/IndianStudies/standingrock/historical_gs_reservation.html Peace was short-lived, however... ...as violence broke out once again when gold was "discovered" in the Black Hills of South Dakota in 1874. http://www.manataka.org/page1176.html The Black Hills Colonel George Custer's regiment killed countless Indians, before being annihilated in the famed Battle of Little Bighorn. Native Americans were forced onto reservations, but not all were willing to comply... born in what is now Oregon in 1840 in a Nez Perce tribe given the name Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt, or "Thunder Rolling Down the Mountain," but was commonly called Joseph, his father's Christian name elected leader of his tribe in 1871 and resisted attempts by government to move the Nez Perce from their home in the Wallowa Valley to a reservation http://www.consultmallowe.com/history/an-american-odyssey-custer-at-little-bighorn/ http://wallowavalley.net/ The Wallowa Valley finally forced to go to an Idaho reservation in 1877, but some of his warriors attacked a white settlement on the way there, provoking military pursuit of the tribe hunted by the U.S. military, he led his tribe in a break for the Canadian border Chief Joseph led his band of 700 Nez Perce, fewer than 200 of which were warriors, from their home in Oregon towards Canada. imnaha.net The chase lasted 1400 miles and took three months, but eventually the Nez Perce were overtaken by the more numerous American forces just 40 miles from the Canadian border. "Tell General Howard I know his heart. What he told me before, I have it in my heart. I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed; Looking Glass is dead, Too-hul-hul-sote is dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young men who say yes or no. He who led on the young men is dead. It is cold, and we have no blankets; the little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them, have run away to the hills, and have no blankets, no food. No one knows where they are—perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children, and see how many of them I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs! I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever."
-Chief Joseph, surrender speech born in 1823 to an Apache tribe in modern New Mexico and given the name Goyahkla, or One Who Yawns a 1858 Mexican raid resulted in the death of his mother, young wife, and three of his children, after which he became a warrior and swore revenge he began a surprisingly successful series of raids on Mexican troops and civilians, attacking towns and military outposts anewdayoutreach.com “I will lead you to their city - we will attack them in their homes. I will fight in the front of the battle. I only ask you to follow me to avenge this wrong done by these Mexicans."
"If I am killed no one need mourn for me."
-Geronimo one example of his brutal revenge took place in the Mexican state of Chihuahua, over a hundred miles south of the U.S. border... Targeting the Mexican Commander Juan Mata Ortiz who was hated for his role in a previous battle, the Apache warriors stole horses from the town of Galeana in anticipation of pursuit. They set up an ambush down the road, and trapped the 23 Mexicans on top of a hill. They shot them gradually with rifles, avoiding killing Mata Ortiz, and then captured him, before burning him alive. They reportedly told him, "no bala
(no bullet) no cuchillo
(no knife) no lance
(no sword) pero lumbre."
(but flame) Geronimo and his warriors threw Mata Ortiz into a pit of fire, exacting Geronimo's revenge. gohastings.com Geronimo narrated his autobiography to a scribe in 1906 He died in 1909. wpclipart.com Helped lead Red Cloud's War, a series of hit and run attacks on American forts on the Missouri River Most famous for his victory at the Battle of Little Big Horn Sitting Bull the Sioux sadly surrendered stoically and was sustained in Standing Rock for several semesters before simply signing as a showman Where despite reportedly cursing at
the audience, he was romanticized as
a dashing war hero, and revered by
the people Since Natives were seen as a separate nation, they had no power in the federal government The culture clash between Natives and American pioneers alienated the two peoples The federal government went to great lengths to force the natives into submission Bibliography Relationship with the United States united-states-flag.com united-states-flag.com united-states-flag.com united-states-flag.com In 1851, Geronimo led a raid against American surveyors searching for gold on Apache lands. As white advancement continued throughout the 1860's, Geronimo led many raids against American settlements, provoking the interference of the U.S. army and leading to a treacherous massacre at Fort Bowie. united-states-flag.com Fort Bowie Congress issued an order to move the Apaches to an Arizona reservation in 1871. Geronimo and a band of followers escaped in 1875 and again in 1881, living as outlaws in Mexico and the Southwest for two years each time before being recaptured. He escaped again in 1885 before ultimately surrendering in 1886 after being chased into Mexico by the Americans. He lived out the rest of his life on reservations. Pendergast, Sara, Allison McNeill, Tom Pendergast, and Christine Slovey. "Geronimo." Biographies. 2. Detroit: 2000. <http://tinyurl.com/b4sjbkm>. Stromberg, Joseph. "Geronimo’s Decades-Long Hunt for Vengeance." Smithsonian. 20 2012: 1. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. Kennedy, David, Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas Bailey. The American Pageant. 14th ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2010. 633-639. Print. "Chief Joseph." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 6 Jan 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/chiefjoseph.htm> Many of the Apaches became Oklahoman farmers. flagspot.net chiricahuaapache.org This quote shows that Chief Joseph and his tribe were worn down.
He had to surrender because his people were put in a position where they could no longer fight.
This illustrates the lengths the Americans were willing to go to in order to force their will upon the Native Americans. Red Cloud's War The Battle of Little Bighorn The chase lasted 1400 miles and took three months, but eventually the Nez Perce were overtaken by the more numerous American forces just 40 miles from the Canadian border. He addressed America analogously aggressively, abstaining access to all Apache areas from American authorities and angrily attacking American armies as well as abodes.