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Skeletal and Muscular System

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by

Casey Lambert

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Skeletal and Muscular System

The musculoskeletal system provides form, support, stability and movement to the body.
The system includes the muscles ("musculo") and bones ("skeletal") of the body, and the ligaments and tendons that hold them together.
You are born with ~300 bones. However, the adult body has only 206 bones. Why is this? Certain bones, like those in the skull, fuse together over time to provide for more strength and stability.
Supports the body and protects vital organs.
Gives the body balance and allows for movement (locomotion).
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Carpals (8 bones)
Metacarpals (5 bones)
Phalanges (14 bones)
(7 bones)
(5 bones)
(14 bones)
There are ~20 bones in the skull.
neck
ribs
lower back
tail bone
12 PAIRS (24 total) that attach to the thoracic vertebrae in the back
It protects the brain and eyes.
The vertebrae protect the spinal cord.
The ribs protect the heart and the lungs.
3. Ball-and-Socket joints are found in your hips and shoulders.
Joints are the locations in the body where bones come together and movement occurs.
1. Gliding, or pivot, joints are found in the ankles, wrists, and between the vertebrae in your spine. They allow for a wide range of mostly sideways movement.
2. Hinge joints are found in your elbows and knees. They are the simplest form of joint, only allowing movement in one direction.
Certain parts of a skeleton are very different between males and females.
There are 3 types of muscle that keep your body going.
Involuntary and found only in the heart.
Involuntary and found in the digestive system (stomach, intestines, etc.)
Voluntary and found in most muscles of the body.
Bone Factoids
Your bones produce blood cells from bone marrow deep in the bone that enable the rest of your body to function properly.
Your bones protect your vital organs.
Use it or lose it! If you are not active, your bones can lose calcium and other minerals, making them weak and at risk of further damage.
Your skeleton fits together like a big, 206 piece jigsaw puzzle. Because we are BILATERAL animals, our skeleton is balanced from one side to the other - what bones you have on one side, you have a matching one on the other.
Think this is cool? You could play with bones as your JOB if you wanted!
Scapula
It is a fibrous connective tissue that can also attach muscle to structures like the eyeball. They serve to move the bone or structure around.
Tendons hold muscle to bone.
Warning: This might gross you out :)
This fibrous connective tissue serves to hold structures together and keep them stable.
Ligaments hold bone to bone
When a person is born, they have ~ 45 bony structures in their skull. As they age, bones begin to fuse together and form zipper-like seams called sutures. Before these suture fuse, babies have a soft spot where the brain is exposed through the space between some of the bones.
Most skeletal muscles work in pairs on the anterior (front) and posterior (back) sides of the body to move the skeleton.
There are 100's of muscles in the body. We are only going to look at 9 of them.
Anterior (front side)
Pectorals: moves and rotates the humerus when flexed
Deltoid: moves and rotates the humerus when flexed, and stabilizes shoulder joint
Bicep: flexes the arm at the elbow joint
Abdominals: supports upright posture and movement, and projects and holds intestines in place
Quadriceps: straightens the leg at the knee joint when flexed
Triceps: Extends the arm at the elbow joint (works with the biceps)
Hamstrings: Extends the leg at the knee joint (works with the quadriceps)
Gluteus: Moves and rotates the femur, and stabilizes the hip joint
Gastrocnemius: Moves the ankle joint with flexed
Posterior (back side)
Full transcript