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Reported Speech

direct speech, indirect speech, indirect discourse
by

Marcello Araújo

on 28 February 2016

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Transcript of Reported Speech

Valentine's Day
Do you like Calvin and Hobbes?
Let's read more...
Direct Speech
Direct speech is actually the spoken words a character says.
It comes in bubbles or between quotation marks.
"You don't scare me, Moe."
"This is just your clumsy way of coping with the fact that I'm genius and You're still sttruggling with the concept of walking erect."
"The truth will set your teeth free."
"You don't scare me."
original statement (direct speech)
time verb (present)
He told Moe (that) He didn't scare him.
reported/indirect speech
reporting verb
time of reported verb: past
Reported Speech or Indirect Discourse
Direct Speech
Reported Speech
In the reported speech Calvin tells Hobbs the conversation he had with his mother.
Calvin says what she told him "indirectly" to Hobbes.
The rules to turn Direct into Indirect Speech are simple:
Generally you put the verb in the past.
Present (simple, continuous, perfect)
Past (simple, continuous, perfect)
"I know a lot about ancient history"
He said (that) he knew a lot about ancient history
"I'm not enjoying my job very much"
He said (that) he wasn't enjoying his job much
"I've learned to drive"
He said (that) he had learned to drive
The Past becomes the Past Perfect
Modals
will
would
can
could
may
might
must
had to
"I will travel"
She said she would travel
"I can surf well"
She said she could surf well
"I may call my teacher"
She said she might call her teacher
"We must study for the test"
They said they had to study for the test
Could, should, ought to, might, would - Unchanged
"I could go to the party"
He said he could go to the party
"We would see the show"
I said they would see the show
"I might get the new job"
She told me she might get the new job
Past (simple, continuous, perfect)
"I knew her name"
He said he had known her name
"I was having luch"
He said he had been having lunch
"I had watched the film"
He said he had watched the film
Past Perfect
To make questions the rules are the same
Direct
"When do you have to hand in the sales report?"
Reported
I asked him when
he had to
hand in the sales report
Direct
"What did you do at the weekend?"
Reported
I asked him what ___________ at the weekend
he had done
(what, where, when, who, how, etc)
Yes/No Questions
WH - QUESTIONS
Direct
Reported
Direct
Reported
"Did Joyce go with you?"
"Have you heard she's going out with Rupert?"
I asked him if
Joyce had gone
with him
He asked me if ____________
she was going out
with Rupert
I had heard
1. When reporting wh-questions
2. When reporting yes/no questions
3. The word order in a reported question is
[ ] you should use IF
[ ] you should repeat the wh- word
[ ] different from the word order in a direct question
2
1
3
"What do you need to do to get a good performance, Laura?"
I asked Laura ________ she needed to do...
"Did you know they broke up, Laura?"
I asked Laura _____ she had known (that) they...
if
what
"What's the teacher handing out?"
Direct
Indirect
Calvin asked what _____ the teacher handing out.
"Grades? We're being graded?"
Calvin asked ____ ______ _____ being graded
"Don't we even get a few practice semesters?"
He asked ____ _____ ______ get a few practice semesters.
was
if
they
were
if
they
didn't
Direct
Indirect
Calvin asked the Doctor ______ he______ rubbing his arm...
"Why are you rubbing my arm with cotton?"
was
"Are you going to bleed me?"
Calvin asked him _____ he ______ going to bleed him.
was
Calvin, did you like the class today?
bye bye!!
A class by teacher Marcello Araújo
little joys of life:
1. Reading a new comic book
2. Petting a happy dog
3. Getting a letter in the mail
4. Eating the marshmallows in hot chocolate
5. Smiling when a big kid calls you a bad name
and then PUNCHING his teeth straight down his ugly neck!
by Calvin
Reported Speech
Direct
Indirect
Calvin said he ________ get out.
"I can't get out!"
couldn't
Calvin told Susie he ______ trapped in the hall closet.
was
"I'm trapped in the hall closet!"
Direct
Indirect
Calvin said he______________ to bed.
wasn't going
Calvin told his mother he _______ do anything he ________
could
"I can do anything I want!"
"I'm not going to bed!"
wanted
"I'll be a hulking, surly teenager..."
He said he _______ be a hulking, surly teenager...
would
if
why
4. When reporting questions in the past simple
[ ] you should use had + past participle
4
Full transcript