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Overview of Reading Revised 3/22/11

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Sarah Holden

on 30 March 2011

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Transcript of Overview of Reading Revised 3/22/11

ASHA's Scope of Practice Describe the five major areas of reading
Describe the SLP role in the area of reading
Describe the relationship between domains of reading
Describe where your current clients skills should be and how to integrate your developing knowledge of literacy into your sessions Five Major Areas of Reading Other Language-Based Reading Disabilities Poor Reader Subgroups Survey SLPs should provide reading intervention.
Preventing written language problems by fostering language acquisition and emergent literacy
Identifying children at risk for reading and writing problems
Assessing reading and writing
Providing intervention and documention for reading and writing (YES, in ALL FIVE AREAS)
Assuming other general roles, such as providing assistance to general education teachers, parents, and students
Advocating for effective literacy practices; advancing the knowledge base

"The reciprocal and multiple relationships between spoken and written language make it appropriate for SLP's to play an integral role in helping children become literate." Specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin
Characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.
Difficulties typically result from a deficit in the PHONOLOGICAL COMPONENT of language.
Unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction
Secondary consequences include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. Exclusionary Factors Sensory/Neurobiological Factors
Instructional Factors: Adequate Literacy Experience
IQ-Achievement Discrepancy: HOT TOPIC Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Fluency
Comprehension
Vocabulary Difficulties go beyond phonological processing
Difficulty with vocabulary, grammar, and text-level processing
Difficulty with reading comprehension
Listening comprehension measure often distinguish children with dyslexia from those with more global language-based reading disabilities Normal Progression of Reading
(Shaywitz, 2003) Early Preschool (3-4 years)
Awareness of how sentences then words come apart
Interest in rhymes and alliteration (initial and final sound sorts)
Identifies at least 10 alphabet letters (often in own name) Late Preschool (4-5 years)
Divides words into syllables
50% can count the number of syllables in spoken words
Starts to separate words into phonemes
20% can count number of phonemes in spoken words
Identifies own name and some letters Early Kindergarten
Identifies words that do/do not rhyme (judge and match rhyming words)
Generates rhyming words
Identifies and labels almost all upper and lowercase letters Late Kindergarten
Segments and blends two- and three-sound words (CV, VC, CVC)
90% can count syllables
Label the first sound in a spoken word
70-80% can count phonemes in short words
Names all letters and knows the sounds of almost all letters
Writes many upper and lowercase letters
Writes own name, family & pet names
Begins to decode simple words (CVC, VC, CV)
Starts to identify sight words
Uses inventive spelling Second Grade (7-8 years)
Routinely decodes
Continues to develop short vowels, consonant blends & consonant diagraphs
Learns r-controlled vowels, vowel diagraphs and vowel dipthongs
Begins to break apart multi-syllabic words into syllables
Reads some real and nonsense multi-syllabic words
Begins to read with fluency and inflection
Represents all sounds in a word when spelling
Reads independently First Grade
Segments, blends, and manipulates phonemes
Decodes short vowels, consonants, consonant blends and diagraphs
Starts to decode unfamiliar one-syllable words (word attack skills)
Starts to learn uncommon/irregularly spelled words (sight/Dolch words)
Spells short easy words Third Grade (8-9 years)
Uses all vowel patterns
Uses knowledge of homophones
Decodes regular, multi-syllabic words
Uses knowledge of prefixes and suffixes
Reads longer fiction selections and chapter books Fourth Grade
Reads to learn
Reads for pleasure and information What is phonemic awareness? Falls under the umbrella of phonological awareness
The ability to focus on an manipulate phonemes in spoken words
Involves: segmenting, blending, phoneme manipulation, phoneme isolation, phoneme identity, (boy, bike, bell=/b/) phoneme categorization (bus, bun, rug=rug doesn't belong)
Can involve sounds ONLY or sounds with letters Areas are Hierarchical In THEORY, you don't work on reading comprehension UNTIL.. Fluency is WNL and you shouldn't work on fluency UNTIL... Phonics are age appropriate, and you shouldn't work on phonics UNTIL... Phonemic awareness skills are present ALWAYS work on vocabulary What is phonics? Understanding that:
Language is composed of sounds
Letter symbols can be used to represent those sounds (i.e., alphabetic principle)
There is a sound-symbol relationship Why do children have difficulty with phonics? 1. English has less consistent orthography and low-predictability for sound-symbol relationships.

II. Poor instruction

III. "Matthews Effect" of underlying skills What is fluency? The ability to read as well as we speak
The ability to make sense of the text without having to stop and decode the words Who needs intervention for fluency?
Monitor at 50%
Intervene at 10 words below 50% Comprehension The Blimbat
Once when I was a yoder, my tomly and I were mayle in line to buy mott for the blimbat. Finally, there was only one plam between us and the mott conter. The plam made a big impression on me. There were eight utzs, all probably under the age of 12. You could tell meyle did not have a lot of willen. Their pards were not yanker, but tures were clean. The utzs were well-behaved, all of them meyle in line. Two-by-two behind their potent holding zibits. Tures were excitedly temering about the plums, fonts, and other acts tures would see that night. Reading Comprehension Questions:
80% Decoding Accuracy
Who is telling the story?
What made an impression on the yoder?
Where did the yoder see the plam?
Why did the plam make an impression on the yoder? The Circus
Once when I was a teenager, my tomly and I were standing in line to buy mott for the circus. Finally, there was only one plam between us and the mott counter. This plam made a big impression on me. There were eight utzs, all probably under the age of 12. You could tell they did not have a lot of money. Their clothes were not expensive, but they were clean. The utzs were well-behaved, all of them standing in line, two-by-two behind their parents holding hands. They were excitedly jabbering about the clowns, fonts, and other acts they would see that night. Reading Comprehension Questions: 93% Decoding Accuracy
Who is telling the story?
What made an impression on the teenager?
Where did the teenager see the plam?
Why did the plam make an impression on the teenager?
When did the teenager see the plam? The Circus
Once when I was a teenager, my family and I were standing in line to buy tickets for the circus. Finally, there was only one family between us and the ticket counter. This family made a big impression on me. There were eight children, all probably under the age of 12. You could tell they did not have a lot of money. Their clothes were not expensive, but they were clean. The children were well-behaved, all of them standing in line, two-by-two behind their parents holding hands. They were excitedly jabbering about the clowns and other acts they would see that night. Reading Comprehension Questions:
100% Decoding Accuracy
What made an impression on the teenager?
Where did the teenager see the family?
Why did the family make an impression on the teenager?
When did the teenager see the family? Reading Levels
Independent
Instructional
Frustration Decoding
96-100%
90-95%
<90% Comprehension
90-100%
70-89%
<70% Hallmark Characteristics
Difficulty with word recognition and decoding
Discrepancy between ability and achievement
Not due to an intellectual disability
Not due to poor instruction Secondary Consequences
Reading comprehension
Reduced reading experience
Can result in: impeded vocabulary growth and reduced background/general knowledge Comorbid Disorders The following disorders can coexist with dyslexia or someone with these may be misdiagnosed with dyslexia
ADHD--very common
CAPD
Language disorder--very common
Visual Diorders Other Disorders That Impact Reading Intellectual disability
ADHD (can co-exist though)
Social-Emotional disorders (can co-exist though)
SLI: can't comprehend oral language=can't comprehend written language/poor vocabulary (can co-exist though)
CAS (can co-exist)
Other contributors--poor memory and exposure factors In a nutshell... Assessment of Dyslexia and Reading Disorders SLP cannot diagnose independently dyslexia but you may be the first person to assess and may need to make referrals--WE ARE A PART OF THE TEAM (Psychologist/Educators/Etc.)
Historically...discrepancy between word recognition and IQ (PROBLEMATIC: IQ testing is no longer required but usually some form of achievement testing may be done in it's place)

Assess both listening comprehension and word recognition to determine the underlying deficit
Figure out the lowest area of deficit (of the five)-treatment should target that area first Not Early Signs of Dyslexia Reversing letters when writing: typical until 2nd grade
Common error on multisyllabic words-"pasketi" for spaghetti Listening Comprehension
Comprehensive language assessment
CASL, CELF-4, TLC-2, TLC-A, TACL-3
CELF-4: Understanding Spoken Paragraphs, RAN, Working Memory Written Language
Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS)
Test of Written Language (TOWL-4)
Test of Early Written Language (TEWL-2)
Test of Written Expression (TOWE) Phonological/Phonemic Awareness Tests
Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (CTOPP)
Phonological Awareness Test (PAT)
Test of Phonological Awareness (TOPA)
Lindamood Auditory Concepualization-3 (LAC-3)
Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic Segmentation Phonics
Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE)
Phono-Graphix
Wilson
Additional informal tests Vocabulary
Receptive: PPVT, ROWPVT
Expressive: EVT-2, EOWPVT Reading Comprehension
Test of Reading Comprehension-3 (TORC-3)
GORT Multiple Areas
Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System
Developmental Reading Assessment-2 (DRA-2)
Qualitative Reading Intervention-4 (QRI-4)
Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT-4)
Woodcock Johnson Test of Achievement III (WJ-III)-"Gold Standard") Informal
Portfolio review
Parent/teacher interview
Classroom observation
Letter naming task
Sound-symbol inventory
Sight word inventory
Spelling inventory/writing vocabulary
Running records
Informal writing samples (narrative and expository)
Informal narrative samples YES we SHOULD No we SHOULDN'T YES we SHOULD but only in the area of comprehension. YES we SHOULD but only phonological awareness skills. Phono-Graphix
EmPOWER Method for Expository Writing
Story Grammar Marker
V/V
Fab 4
Framing Your Thoughts IDA Definition of Dyslexia Oral Language
Phonological components of language :
-phonological memory (word retrieval)
-phonological memory (sequences of letters/digits/see below)
-phonological production (speech)
-phonological awareness
Difficulty following directions
Difficulty with before/after, left/right
Difficulty with concepts/relationships
Difficulty learning the alphabet, nursery rhymes, songs This can include...
Reading comprehension (child reads)
Listening comprehension (adult reads) Assess across the 5 areas (horizontal)
Delve more deeply into areas of particular difficulty
(vertical) Assesssment of Reading Skills Fluency
Great Leaps
Read Naturally WARNING:
It does not always work out this way. Questions and Comments?
FOOD FOR THOUGHT:
What criterion do SLPs normally use when writing goals? What is phonological awareness? Phonemic Awareness Phonics Work with print symbols The ability to isolate and manipulate individual sounds or phonemes
Linked causally to early word decoding skills
Ability to analyze the sound structure of oral language f The Relationship Between Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Comprehension and Vocabulary:
3 Volunteers Please weak phonemic awareness skills often lead to weak decoding skills...
AND
weak decoding skills usually lead to poor fluency
AND
poor fluency skills usually lead to poor comprehension How do I choose the right book? Answer this question...
What goals are you addressing with the book? If you are working on speech...
Do you want the child to read the book? (Books at his/her INDEPENDENT DECODING level with multiple opportunities to produce the target sound)
Do you want to do most of the reading and have the child insert repetitive words with his/her target? (Books at his/her INTEREST/DEVELOPMENTAL level) If you are working on a specific language target...
You will PROBABLY be engaging in dialogic book reading or reading the book aloud to the child
SO....choose a book at his/her INTEREST/DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL) If you are working on oral narratives/story grammar...
You will PROBABLY be reading aloud the book to the child and engaging in dialogic book reading
BUT...you will be targeting specific components of an oral narrative (i.e., characters, setting, initiating events, action sequence, etc.)
SO...you have to choose books at a child's INTEREST/DEVELOPMENTAL level AND that clearly incorporate aspects of story grammar
BUT, if you are working on oral narratives, you have MORE FLEXIBILITY because it does not have to be a book retell. If you are working on decoding/fluency...
You will be working at your client's INSTRUCTIONAL reading level for DECODING ACCURACY
So, you have to assess his/her reading fluency with a running record or the "Benchmark Assessment System"
And...you will choose books at his or her INSTRUCTIONAL reading level If you are working on READING comprehension...
You will be working at your client's INSTRUCTIONAL level for COMPREHENSION (remember, this can be inconsistent with fluency/decoding skills)
So you have to choose books at your client's INSTRUCTIONAL reading level Sign up for individual meeting with supervisor for next week
Weekly PSL meetings are Wednesdays from 1:00-2:00
PSL supplies and disinfection responsibilities
Questions? Wrap Up and Reminders Part I:True or False
SLPs can work on listening comprehension, but other areas of reading (i.e., phonics, fluency, etc.) are beyond our scope.
An SLP can diagnose a written language disorder.
Phonological awareness tasks involve print.
If a child is demonstrates 90% decoding accuracy on grade level text, it is likely that he/she will also be able to comprehend text at grade level.

Part II
List the 5 areas of reading.
What is the difference between phonemic awareness and phonics? Post Test Objectives SLPs need to be thinking about spoken AND written language Report of the National Reading Panel "Bottom Up Approach" What are the similarities between spoken and written language? Involves a child's knowledge of the five domains of language
Examples
Pragmatics (e-mail vs. letter vs. story vs. report)
Semantics (relating knowledge of known and unknown)
Morphology (using root words/prefixes/suffixes) What are the differences between spoken and written language? Requires active awareness and thought about language (metalinguistic awareness)
Has limited nonlinguistic cues b/c written language is removed from the present
Syntax is more formalized and complex
Information is linked with linguistic cohesive devices (first, next, and, then, finally, etc.)
Taps into orthographic representations (mental images) of words, morphemes, and letters stored in memory to be used in reading and spelling Written language... SLP Role in Assessment/Intervention Middle Kindergarten Match words with same beginning sounds
Match words with same final sounds
Segment initial and final sounds
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