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IMPLICATURE

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Khủng Long Con

on 10 November 2013

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Transcript of IMPLICATURE

English Semantics
I. Conversational implicature
- Basic function in conversation: the cooperative principle and the maxims

- When maxims are violated (speakers appear not to adhere to them), more is communicated than said.

- the speakers who communicate meanings via implicatures, the listeners who recognize those meanings via inference.

IMPLICATURE
Outline
I. Conversational Implicature
II. Types of Conversational Implicature
III. Conventional Implicature
IV. Application
IV. Practice
Student- in- charge
1. Nguyen Ngoc Minh Chau
2. Nguyen Thi Y Nhu
- what a speaker can imply, suggest, or mean, as from what the speaker literally says (by Grice)

--> Implicature is an additional conveyed meaning.
What is Implicature???
Herbert Paul Grice (1919- 1988)
Example
1. A: “Do you feel hungry?”
B: “I’ve not eaten for 3 days.”

maxim of the relevance.)
B is cooperative so that A may infer that B is very hungry.
Example
Charlene: I hope you brought the bread (b) and the cheese (c).
Dexter: Ah, I brought the bread

--> Dexter has conveyed more than he said via a conversational implicature
Charlene: b & c?
Dexter: b (+> NOT c)


II. Types of conversational implicature

1. Generalized conversational implicature
2. Scalar implicature
3. Particularized conversational implicature

1. Generalized conversational implicature
Inferable without reference to a special context. (No special knowledge is required to figure out the additional meaning)

Example:
John walked into a house yesterday and saw a tortoise.
Implicature: the house is not John’s house.

2. Scalar implicature
- occurs when something is communicated by choosing a word which expresses one value from a scale of values.

- When any form in a scale is arserted, the negative of all forms higher on the scale is implicated

Example
Some of the boys went to the party,

Implicature: "not all of the boys went to the party." (Quantity maxim)

3. Particularized conversational implicature
Occurs when a conversation takes place in a very specific context in which locally recognized inferences are assumed.
Example:
A: What on earth has happened to the roast beef?
B: The dog is looking very happy.

III. Conventional implicatures
☞- not based on the cooperative principle or the maxims.
☞- not have to occur in conversation
☞- not depend on special contexts for their interpretation.
☞- associated with specific words and result in additional conveyed meanings when those words are used.

Example
* Alfred has still not come.
-- >Conventional implicature: Alfred was expected to have come by now.

*John is hungry but he won’t stay for supper.
--> Conventional implicature: We might expect that if John is hungry, he will stay for supper.


Application

0

“Tim hasn’t done his homework yet”

→ Implicated message: Tim is expected to finish his homework.
→ Conventional implicature

A: Do vegetarians eat hamburger?
B: Do chicken have lips?

→ Implicated message: The question is obvious and it doesn’t need to be answered.
→ Particularized implicature



“Some of my friends like Taylor Swift”

→ Implicated message : Not all of her friends like Taylor Swift
→ Scalar implicature

A: Do you like Monica?
B: She’s the cream in my coffee.

→ Implicated message: B really likes Monica.
→ Particularized implicature

+ 5

Mom: What did you think of Junior’s childish behavior last night?
Dad: Well, boys will be boys.

→ Implicated message: Dad thought that Junior’s behavior wasn’t a big deal.
→ Particularized implicature

Game time!!!

“Even Bill likes Mary”

→ Implicated message: Of the people under consideration, Bill is the least likely to like Mary.
→ Conventional implicature

- 2

+ 2



"Mary has 3 children."
→ Implicated message: Mary has no more than 3 children.
→ Generalized conversional implicature

A: Will Sally be at the meeting this afternoon? B: Her car broke down.
→ Implicated message: Sally won't be at the meeting.
→ Particularized conversional

Until 1996 the Sears Tower was the tallest building in the world. It is located in Chicago, whose nickname is the Windy City. The combination of a very tall building in a city with such weather conditions leads to a lot of swaying in the breeze.
It can be inferred from the passage that Chicago     (A) has moderate weather     (B) is generally warm    (C) has humid weather    (D) usually has a lot of wind

Example:

Being able to understand the speakers’ or writers’ implicated messages to answer implied detail questions correctly.

In reading and listening comprehension

1. Livening up our conversations or writing.
Example:
A: What qualities does John have for this position?
B: He’s handsome, I think.
→ Implicated message: John isn’t qualified for the job.

2. Hiding information which could be offensive or disappointing to the hearer
Example:
A: What happened to our flight? We’ve been waiting for hours.
B: It’s possible that the flight is delayed.
→ Implicated message: Their flight has been delayed.

In communication





Doberman





Samoyed





Pitbull





Phu Quoc





Bulldog






Siberian Husky





Dachshund






Rottweiler





Golden Retriever




Pug





Yorkshire
Terrier




Akita Inu
Full transcript