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Transcript of Jellyfish
The jellyfish has two main cell layers; the epidermis and the gastrodermis
The gastrodermis lines the gut and the single opening where food enters
The epidermis is a loose network of cells which is the most basic nervous system known in a multicellular organism
In between the two layers is a material called mesoglea, it makes up most of their bodies and forms a kind of internal skeleton
Jellyfish have no need for a stomach, intestines or lungs; food enters through cell walls
Jellyfish Diversity and Evolution
Jellyfish are cnidaria, a group that contains jellyfish, sea anemones, and coral
Jellyfish can be divided into four main groups; scyphozoa, hydrozoa, cubozoa, and staurozoa
They are the first known organism to have organized tissues and a nervous system
First animals known to use muscles to swim instead of drifting with the waves
The oldest ancestors of modern jellyfish lived at least 500 million years ago
The jellyfish is a carnivore and traps prey with it’s tentacles
Their tentacles contain thousands of stinging cells which injects venom into the prey which will either kill or paralyze them
Once the prey has been killed by the venom, the tentacles help transport food to the mouth
Jellyfish eat plankton, eggs and larvae from other marine animals, mollusks and crustaceans
Some also eat their own kind
You may not know but jellyfish are one of the oldest living creatures in the world, but also one of the most fascinating creatures. Jellyfish are found across all the oceans in the world and live at a wide range of depths from the ocean surface to the ocean floor. They look like shapeless blobs on shore but in the ocean they are extremely graceful, delicate creatures. There are more than 2000 species of jellyfish that we know of that live and lurk in many different oceans.
Jellyfish Anatomy Continued
Jellyfish are about 95% water
They have two different body forms throughout their life; where the tentacles are facing down and the bell shape is on top and the opposite (like a sea anemone)
Jellyfish vary in size
They can be from 1/2 inch to 16 inches long
Jellyfish don't have brains, just a simple network of nerves that control their actions
Balance sensors help jellyfish tell whether they are up or down
Light sensing organs called ocelli help sense the presence and absence of light
The tentacles of a jellyfish are very important to helping and supporting the jellyfish
Most jellyfish have long, extending tentacles
The number of tentacles a jellyfish can have can range from eight to hundreds
Tentacles are equipped with venom and consists of capsule like structures called nematocysts
Nematocysts are hollow and contain a coiled thread inside of them
They contain both the trigger and venom to a jellyfish sting and are present in oral arms or tentacles depending on the jellyfish
These stinging cells protect them, help catch prey and keep jellyfish warm
The tentacles are also used to help the jellyfish put food in it's mouth
To move, jellyfish use their muscles that line the margin of the bell to move up and down
These muscles contract and relax in order to enable the jellyfish to move
The ocean also helps them to move by waves and currents which help their horizontal movement
Most jellyfish actively move but others float
Many jellyfish have bio luminescence; which is most likely used as a means of defense
Jellyfish are mostly colorless or transparent; they adapted this for camouflage
Others are bright red or orange in color. This works the same way transparency does, red can’t be seen in deep water and pigment is easier to produce
by Cambria Bartlett and Avery Greenwood
Flower Hat Jellyfish
Black Sea Nettle
Predators of jellyfish
The most common predators that prey on jellyfish include;
One species of Pacific Salmon
Although, also other jellyfish prey on their species
Species of Jellyfish
The largest know jellyfish is called the Lion's Mane Jellyfish
This jellyfish prefers cold waters, so it often found in the Arctic, northern Pacific oceans and northern Atlantic.
Has quite a powerful sting
The tentacles of this jellyfish is extremely sticky and come grouped in eight clusters, a cluster has 65 to 150 tentacles, in a series of rows.
These jellyfish has a bell body and looks like a eight pointed star
The color of the Lion's Mane depends on it's size
Lion's Mane Jellyfish
Jellyfish Anatomy Continued
Some jellyfish have developed simple organs and others can have complex organs
Jellyfish digest by using their gastrodermal lining; where nutrients are absorbed
They don't need a respiratory system due to having gas that can diffuse through their extremely thin skin
This is a map showing where jellyfish can be found.
"Jellyfish Adaptations." Jellyfish Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2015
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Haddock, Steven, and Katherine Elliott. "Global Expansion of Jellyfish Blooms: Magnitude, Causes and Consequences (NCEAS Project)." Global Expansion of Jellyfish Blooms: Magnitude, Causes and Consequences (NCEAS Project). N.p., Feb. 2010. Web. 05 May 2015. <http://www.jellywatch.org/blooms>.
"Jellyfish and Comb Jellies." Smithsonian Ocean Portal. Smithsonian Institution, 2013. Web. 05 May 2015. <http://ocean.si.edu/jellyfish-and-comb-jellies>.
"Jellyfish Adaptations and How Jellyfish Survive in the Ocean." Bright Hub. Bright Hub Inc., 2012. Web. 05 May 2015. <http://www.brighthub.com/environment/science-environmental/articles/75651.aspx>.
"Types of Jellyfish – Top 10 Most Beautiful Types of Jellyfish on Planet Earth." Animals Time. Animals Time, 2014. Web. 05 May 2015. <http://animalstime.com/top-10-most-beautiful-types-of-jellyfish-on-planet-earth/>.
Ranges from 2-15 inches in diameter
Living in tropics and far south
Can live up to 25 years
Eat plankton and other organisms
Also lives in western Atlantic coast of North America and eastern Atlantic coast of Northern Europe
This species of jellyfish is found in the West Pacific off Southern Japan
The Flower Hat Jellyfish reaches a diameter of 16 cm or 6 in
This jellyfish hardly survives living more than 6 months
Feeds on mainly small fishes
Characterized by lustrous tentacles that coil
Transulent with opaque bands
Eats small jellyfish and zooplankton
Has distinctive purplish bell which can reach over 3 feet
Lacy, pinkish oral arms can reach nearly 20 feet
Lives in deeper, calmer waters
Width of 72 cm
Mostly eats zooplankton
Lives close to Australia
Can be found near Japan
Have a very mild venom threat
Often travel in large groups such as jellyfish blooms
A jellyfish bloom is a when a huge number of jellyfish swarm together
This process depends on ocean currents, nutrients, sunshine, temperature, season, prey availability, reduced predation and oxygen concentrations.
Blooms often form where two currents meet and if there is an onshore breeze thousands of jellyfish can be beached.
Can also result in high populations in certain parts of the ocean due to the bloom
This jellyfish is also referred to as the cabbage head jellyfish
It is shaped like half an egg and may be up to 7 inches in diameter
The Cannonball Jellyfish is a good swimmer and the majority of this species is bluish or yellowish with a brown border
Eat zoo plankton and red drum larvae