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Transcript of Subcultures
Within education there is evidence of teacher racism and negative labellings
This has a direct link with different responses according to class, resulting in different subcultures
Academic streaming - those placed in lower streams were most likely to become part of the deliquescent subculture, whereas pupils in the 'A' stream tended to conform
Through this different sub cultures are formed: Anti school subcultures
Different students respond differently to teachers feedback, having correlations to class, in that working class students are seen to use labels as motivational in that they create subcultures that ensure they succeed and impress teachers
Explanations of why some ethnic minorities students underachieve
Research and studies
Examples using studies and research
Fuller (1984) study. She studied a group of black girls in year 11 from a London comprehensive school. They were very bright which was untypical because the study was held in a school where most of the black girls were placed in low streams. They didn't look for approvals from teachers as they were racist and so, they worked alone. The girls didn't accept the stereotype and so eventually, they succeeded in school.
Fullers research shows that negative labelling doesn't always lead to failure
Mac and Ghaill's (1992) did a study of black and Asian A-level students at a sixth form college and found similar results to Fullers. Students who believed that teachers had labelled them didn't accept the label. Different ethnicities responded differently. For example, girls that were previously in a girls school had great academic commitment and so, they overcame the labels.
Mirza (1992) studied ambitious black girls who faced teacher racism. However, they failed to achieve because their coping strategies restricted opportunities. For example, they didn't take part in lessons and didn't choose certain options to avoid teachers. Other teachers discouraged black pupils from aspiring to professional careers.
Mirza discovered 3 types of racism
The colour- blind ,The liberal chauvinists, The overt racist
Savell (1998) did a study where he looked at boys from a school. Many teachers stereotyped black boys by seeing them as rebellious and anti-social. The boys responded in 4 ways: The rebels ,The conformists,The retreats,The innovators
Critics may argue that some students rely on their own efforts to maintain a positive self-image rather than accepting the teachers stereotype on them. This shows that label does not produce a self-fulfilling prophecy.-Fuller's study
Sociologists argue that this theory is biased because they only blame teachers for racism however, they do not look at the wider society. Factors outside of the school, such as role models and influences in the family and media play a part in racism.
This theory assumes that pupils that are labeled, automatically fall into the self-fulfilling prophecy and fail but this is not the case because pupils ignore the negative labeling and are determined to aim higher. Martin Mac an Ghaill's study supports this.
Postmodernism would argue that society has changed and there is less racism because schools have become diverse.
a group of people within society who share norms, values, beliefs and attitudes that are in some ways different from or opposed to the mainstream culture; e.g. an anti- school subculture formed by pupils in lower streams