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Copy of Argument and Persuasion
Transcript of Copy of Argument and Persuasion
PERSUASION What is it? Characteristics of
Argument & Persuasion The Method Evidence and Appeals The Toulmin Method Deductive and
Inductive Reasoning FOCUS ON TONE Checklist for Revision Source: "Argument and Persuasion." The Brief Bedford Reader. Ed. X. J. Kennedy, Dorothy M. Kennedy, and Jane E. Aaron. 9th ed. Boston: Bedford-St. Martin's, 2006. 515-529. Print. The wonderful journey on which you just embarked upon was crafted by the brilliant, beautiful, and breathtaking,
Miss Tate Sequoia Farris. A. Persuasion aims to influence readers' actions, or support for an action, by engaging their beliefs and feelings. B. Argument aims to influence readers' agreement with an assertion or claim by engaging their powers of reasoning. a) Opinion - our own way of viewing things
b) Proposal - to recommend some action be taken An argument or persuasion can state
opinions and proposals. Transaction Between Writer and Reader Responsible writers do not try to storm people's minds, but persuade by gentler means: sharing their views with readers willing to consider it. Present the truth as you see it. Begin trying to state what your readers probably think, as best you can infer it. Thesis Statement Your thesis, or claim, is the opinion you defend in an argument. Usually you'll state this claim at the beginning of your essay. To support the thesis of your argument, you need evidence - anything that demonstrates your claim. The Method contd. Must appeal to a readers intelligence and feelings. A. RATIONAL APPEAL - rely on conventional methods of reasoning and supply evidence. B. EMOTIONAL APPEAL - acknowledge what you know of readers' sympathies and beliefs and show how your argument relates to them. Data
Warrant The evidence to
prove something. What you are proving
with the data. The assumption or
principle that connects
the data to the claim. Induction: reasoning from particular experiences to general truth. Deduction: reasoning with general knowledge to predict a specific observation. An Example from
Sherlock Holmes Process 1. Set forth a view.
2. Go on to a proposal.
3. Build on points from least important.
4. Give evidence for every point.
5. Be able to face criticisms.
6. Briefly restate claim in conclusion.
7. Don't forget the power in humor. State opinions and facts calmly:
OVEREXCITED: One clueless administrator was quoted in the newspaper as saying she thought many students who claim learning disabilities are faking their difficulties to obtain special treatment! Has she never heard of dyslexia, attention-deficit disorders, and other well-established disabilities? CALM: Particularly worrisome was one administrator's statement, quoted in the newspaper, that many students who claim learning disabilities may be "faking" their difficulties to obtain special treatment. Replace arrogance with deference and sarcasm with plain speaking:
ARROGANT: I happen to know that many students would rather party or just bury their heads in the sand than get involved in a serious, worthy campaign against the school's unjust
learning-disabled policies. DEFERENTIAL: Time pressures and lack of information about the issues may be what prevents students from joining the campaign against the school's unjust learning-disabled policies. SARCASTIC: Of course, the administration knows even without meeting students what is best for them. PLAIN: The administration should agree to meet with each learning-disabled student to learn about his or her needs. Choose words whose connotations convey reasonableness rather than anger, hostility, or another negative emotion:
HOSTILE: The administration coerced some students into dropping their lawsuits.
[Coerced implies the use of threats or even violence.] REASONABLE: The administration convinced some students to drop their lawsuits.
[Convinced implies the use of reason.] Audience Have you taken account of your readers’ probable views? Have you reasoned with readers, not attacked them? Are your emotional appeals appropriate to readers’ likely feelings? Do you acknowledge opposing views? Does your argument have a thesis, a claim about how your subject is or should be? Is the thesis narrow enough to argue convincingly in the space and time available? Is it stated clearly? Is it reasonable? Thesis Is your thesis well supported with facts, statistics, expert opinions, and examples? Is your evidence accurate, representative, relevant, and ample? Evidence Have you made sound connections between your evidence and your thesis or claim? Warrant Have you avoided common errors in reasoning, such as oversimplifying or begging the question? Logical Fallacies Does your organization lead readers through your argument step by step, building to your strongest ideas and frequently connecting your evidence to your central claim? Structure Is the tone of your argument reasonable and respectful? Tone Overall – Does it do what the assignment calls for?