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KEQ2: Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?

OCR GCSE History B The Cold War, 1945-75

David Rawlings

on 5 May 2015

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Transcript of KEQ2: Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?

What has happened in Cuba?
Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?
Learning Objectives
K:The reasons for the CMC, 1962.
U: Who gained most from the CMC.
S: Evaluation; Source analysis

And now, an official civil defense film.
Castro signs a trade agreement with the USSR in 1959. In return for Cuban sugar, USSR will provide oil, machinery and economic aid.
Bay of Pigs Operation April 1961. Failed attempt to invade Cuba and get rid of Castro. CIA involved.
Castro officially declares himself a Communist in December 1961. He asks the USSR to provide arms in order to defend Cuba against American attacks.
Khrushchev announces publicly in September 1961 that the USSR will provide Cuba with arms and secretly decides to create a Soviet nuclear missile base on Cuba.
In 1962 President Kennedy warns the USSR if nuclear missiles are placed in Cuba then they must face the consequences.
This is the closest the world ever came to Nuclear War.
Thirteen Days Task
Write the dates from Tuesday 16 October to Monday 29 October, 1962 down a page in your book.

Leave 4 lines between each date.

Use textbook pp.95-96 to find out what happened on each day during the CMC.
Create a Word Cloud of the causes of the CMC.

Success Criteria:
Use the textbook and your notes to help you.
Show which cause was the most important.
Link causes of a similar theme with the same colour.
Task: Which was the most important cause of the crisis?
10 mins
Final thought:
'Kruschev wanted to turn Cuba into a Soviet military base... The USA were right to threaten nuclear war in order to stop him.'
Do you agree?
1,400 CIA trained American and Cuban troops.
Cuban Revolution
– The suspected Communist Fidel Castro seizes power from American-backed dictator Batista.
Fidel Castro
Similar to Marshall Aid
New leader in Russia as of 1953 - Nikita Krushchev.

He is Chairman of the Communist Party and Premier of the USSR.

The US already had a military base in Turkey.

Incirlik Air Base was in operation from 1955.
It was described by the US as a counter-threat to Soviet Power in eastern Europe.
However, as it put US bombers in range of Moscow, it was seen by the USSR as a huge threat.
JFK - 1962
Was the Cuban Missile Crisis a result of US over-reaction or Russian aggression?
In pairs, decide how you would react to the CMC:
Would put the burden on Krushchev to make the next move.
Would put financial pressure on Cuba.
Option 2: Invasion or attack?
Option 1: Do nothing
The US still had greater nuclear power than the USSR
Krushchev had already lied about putting missiles on Cuba. Kennedy had issued a warning to the USSR. Doing nothing would be a sign of weakness.
An attack would eliminate the missile threat.
An attack would inevitably kill Soviet soldiers and could lead to a war.
Option 3: Blockade?
Could not solve the main problem, that missiles were still on Cuba.
‘Cuba, united we stand.’ In May 1963, the Soviet Union strongly condemns US policy towards Cuba and deplores the imperialist and acquisitive aims of the United States.
A cartoon by Gurov from the Soviet magazine Krokodil.
"The main message of the cartoon is... "
Own Knowledge
Look at all details in the cartoon.
Think about who it is FOR or AGAINST.
This will help you to identify the
the cartoonist was trying to make.
Details from the cartoon
Take 2 minutes to identify the message
Identify the message.
What do you know that supports this message?
Think about:
The characters involved;
The date of the cartoon.
What details in the cartoon also support your message?
Look at every detail and read the caption if there is one.
This should be a clear political message.
Well done!
You're now an expert at evaluating cartoons!
Now practice, practice, practice!
[7 marks]
"The purpose of this cartoon is..."
Why was this cartoon published in 1962?
What is the message of this cartoon?
Who won the Cuban missile crisis?
Fidel Castro
Cartoonist Task:
You are a British cartoonist in 1962. The CMC is over.

Come up with a political message you would like to make about the CMC.
Draw a cartoon to show your message.
Now swap your cartoons with your partner.

notes to the cartoon.
Swap Cartoons
15 mins
10 mins
UK Chart - October 1962
2. Elvis Presley - She's Not you
1. The Tornados - Telstar
3. Cliff Richard - It'll be Me
4. Tommy Roe - Sheila
5. Little Eva - The Locomotion
Why did the USA want containment?
1. Write 'tweet' (max. 140 character) definitions for these key words: Containment / Truman Doctrine / MAD / Domino Theory / Bay of Pigs
Lesson Aim:
To explain why and how America tried to contain Communism.
: Can define key terms to do with containment;
: Can explain containment with reference to key terms;
:Can assess the success of containment.
Exam Alert!
Explain why America tried to contain communism. [6 marks]
What makes a good 6 mark question?
10 mins
Swap answers?
Has your partner fully explained their reasons?
Are you impressed?
'Containment was a failure.'
What makes a good MOD answer?
Success criteria:



What is the message of this cartoon?
Learning Objectives:
K:How to use MOD.
U:Message of a cartoon.
S:MOD skills.
: Can identify the message;
: Can explain the message with reference to knowledge or details;
:Can explain using knowledge and details.
To what extent was containment a failure? [10 marks]
On the one hand
On the other hand
Sort these into success and failures of containment:
Communist Greek rebels were defeated by US and UK backed republican troops in the Greek Civil War.
Korea was divided in two after the USA intervened in the Korean war in the 1950s.
By 1975 US forces in Vietnam had failed to prevent the country from turning communist.
Marshall aid helped to rebuild Western Europe after the war.
Stalin succeeded in creating a buffer zone of friendly communist countries in Eastern Europe.
The failed 'Bay of Pigs' invasion turned Cuba's socialist leader, Fidel Castro, to look for help from the Soviet Union.
In 1979-80 CIA backed Taliban rebels defeated the Soviet army in Afghanistan.
Now mark your work:
L2 - Identifies and/or describes some factors.
[2-3 marks]
L3 - Explains either success or failure.
[4-6 marks]
L4 - Explains both success and failure.
[7-9 marks]
L5 - Evaluates 'to what extent'.
[10 marks]
How did the USA react to the Cuban Missile Crisis?
Lesson Aim:
To assess America's reaction to the Cuban revolution.
: Can describe US reaction, including Bay of Pigs;
: Can explain the consequences of US reaction and give two-sided answers to'how surprised' questions;
:Can assess the success of containment and give a two-sided answer with a substantiated judgement to a 'how surprised' question.
Are you surprised by this source?
Are you surprised by this source?
7 marks
One hand:

Reasons why you are surprised...


I am surprised that America is portrayed as a demon-like figure, sapping the life out of Cuba. I am surprised because similar trade embargoes exist between other nations. America has an ideological opposition to the Cuban system of government, therefore it is not unusual that they would refuse to trade with the country.
Other hand:

Reasons why you are NOT surprised...


However, for the most part I am not surprised by this source. America is shown refusing to listen to the instructions of the UN in regards to the trade embargo. Since 1960 17 resolutions have been passed by the UN requesting that the USA lift their embargo. America has consistently refused to do so and the embargo remains in place to this day.
Hot Seat
Write down a question you would like to ask each of these leaders.
'If you live among wolves, you have to act like a wolf.'
Nikita Khrushchev, 1962
Are you surprised by this source?
What makes a good 'are you surprised...' answer?
Come up with 3 success criteria in your pair.
4 days
April 1961
Domino Theory
Nuclear Missiles
Incirlik Airbase, Turkey
Trade Embargo

John F Kennedy
Nikita Khrushchev
Fidel Castro
Che Guevara
General Batista
Bay of Pigs
1400 Cuban exiles

Write down 9 answers in a grid.
Why did Khrushchev put missiles on Cuba?
Lesson Aim:
To assess Khrushchev's decision to put nuclear missiles on Cuba.
: Can describe reasons for CMC;
: Can explain reasons with reference to key terms;
:Can assess how justified Khrushchev was in putting missiles on CUba.
Load up: Socrativ Student App
Room number: 183180
Individually work your way through the questions.
AfL: Peer assessment
What makes a good 6 mark question?
What is good about this answer?
What would you improve?
What makes a good 10 mark question?
What is good about this answer?
What would you improve?
Timeline Task: create a timeline of the crucial '13 days' of the Cuban Missile Crisis using the textbook pp.95-96.
Success criteria:

Bronze (C):
List what happened on each of the dates.

Silver (B):
Explain the causes and consequences of each event - e.g. 'The blockade led to a showdown between Khrushchev and Kennedy. One would have to back down to avoid a war.'

Gold (A):
Assess the importance of each event, making reference to how close the world was to a nuclear war.
Lesson Aim:
To assess who won the Cuban Missile Crisis.
: Can describe consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis;
: Can
consequences with and begin to make a judgement on the winner;
:Offer a balanced judgement that assesses to what extent each side could argue that they won.
Task: Who won the CMC - card sort
1. Sort your cards into reasons why the USA / USSR / or Cuba won the Cuban Missile Crisis.

2. Add an explanation for each of your reasons - 'why does that mean they won?'

3. Colour-code the reasons - red / yellow / green - based on their importance.
Exam Alert!
Describe the Bay of Pigs invasion. [4 marks]
What makes a good 4 mark question?
5 mins
Swap answers?
Has your partner made 4 clear points?
Are you impressed?
Tidal Forces
Bag Of I Spy
Dangled Frenzy Thin Joke
A Thick Hive Shrunk
Can you rearrange the anagrams?
Drawing Task:
You need a pencil and an imagination.
Draw the following:
1. 1959 - Fidel Castro takes over in Cuba.
2. Castro 'nationalises' (takes back from American ownership) Cuban industries, such as sugar.
3. November 1960 - JFK is elected as President.
4. Under pressure from US business, JFK launches the 'Bay of Pigs' invasion to overthrow Castro.
5. On 16th April 1961 1,400 CIA trained Cuban exiles attacked Cuba. They were defeated and captured or killed within 4 days by 20,000 Cuban troops.
6. Castro put 14 of the exiles on trial for treason, the others were sent back to America in exchange for $25million in food and medicine.
Did JFK get it right at the Bay of Pigs?
Why didn't America just invade Cuba?
How did Castro react?
Full transcript