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Elements of Visual Arts

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Charles Gines

on 3 March 2016

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Transcript of Elements of Visual Arts

Two-dimensional or three-dimensional.
Classified into geometric, biomorphic, or free inventions.
Elements of Art
Different kinds of line signify different concepts, values and feelings.

The instrument used in drawing lines on a surface has much to do with their quality. The quality of the line varies on the artwork – if it is a drawing, abstract art, Chinese calligraphy, sculpture, and architecture.
Refers to the perception of touch distinguishing a wide variety of surface qualities.
May described as smooth, fine, silky, satiny, velvety, sandy, furry, feathery, slimy, gritty, rough, rugged, coarse, porous, irregular, jagged, etc.
Expresses emotions, feelings and moods.

Color aspects:
a) Hue – Property which distinguishes one color from another.
b) Saturation – Degree of purity of a color in relation to its appearance in the spectrum.
c) Intensity – Relative lightness or darkness of a color with reference to a scale of values ranging from white to black through a series of gray tones.
Refers to the gradations of tone from light to dark that can be observed in any object under the play of light. It sets the mood of work.
Is more than just light and shadow; it is also mood, atmosphere, climate, temperature.
Elements of Visual Arts
Composition in Space and Movement
Involves not only the relationship of the figures to one another but their relationship to the pictorial space defined by the format of the work.
All the elements of the visual arts: line, value, color, texture, and shape enter into relationships in the work following principles of organization.
Makes up the art's specific vocabulary.

Also called
"Expressive Elements"
because they have the potential of conveying or signifying concepts, values and feelings.

In arriving at the full meaning of the artwork, the approach is to consider the elements all at the same time, and not isolate them from one another.

Meaning of Art: Determined and shaped by its form and the artist's particular use of the elements.

Expressive Elements
Enter into artistic process of creating images in which they become active signifiers of meaning in relation to one another.
a) Horizontal Lines
- Gives a feeling of rest and serenity, relaxation, informality, passivity, death and continuum of infinity.
b) Vertical Lines
- Expresses poise, alertness, balance, equilibrium, firmness, strength and static position but without tension, integrity, dignity and formality, impersonality of law, intellectual order and discipline.
c) Diagonal Lines
- Associated with the body thrust forward and charging purposefully towards an objective.
- Signifies energy, dynamism, impulse, willpower, aspiration, passion and emotion.
Bonifacio Monument by night, taken on 25 February 2007 by Ramir Borja
Taken from: http://moblog.net/media/j/x/l/jxlatoca/3-elements-of-design-project-20-horizontal-vertica.jpg
Taken from: http://www.digitalphotographytipsonline.com/images/Athens_arch_black_and_white.jpg
d) Curved Lines
- Suggests grace and beauty.
- Allied to feeling, impulse, spontaneity, play, grace, charm, sensuality and eroticism.
Taken from: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-oH9Q_d4YUbI/Thw7e8EbPGI/AAAAAAAAApc/v3kmmo2oY8k/s1600/Maria+Makiling%252C+Carlos+Botong+Francisco.jpg
e) Jagged Lines
- Associated with sharp, pointed, and fragmented objects that cut and wound like slivers of broken glass, fractured bones, splintered wood and shards of pottery.
- Signify pain, difficulty, and discomfort.
- Express danger, torture, physical and psychological menace.
Taken from: http://www.joburg.org.za/images/stories/2011/Dec/lightning_top.jpg
f) Broken Lines
- Suggest tentativeness, indefiniteness, and insecurity.
- May also represent imaginary lines between points or to bring out invisible connections.
Taken from: https://c2.staticflickr.com/6/5612/15607838628_f4241895d1_b.jpg
The sense of color is culture-bound

For example: Folk art of lowland Filipinos is characterized by bright colors of high saturation and intensity
Color and Society
Taken from: http://lifestyle.inquirer.net/files/2014/04/13_moriones5.jpg
1. Representational – The artist paints objects from the real world in hues approximating the colors which they seem to have in ordinary illumination.
2. Impressionist – Use of color with a sensitive perception of the effects of changing conditions of light in objects.
3. Decorative – Found in relation to pattern and design.
Ways of Using Color
Taken from: http://ufec.ph/images/200919040514/6.jpg

Taken from: https://textilesocietyofamerica.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/textiles-of-bhutan.jpeg
4. Personal use – Artist uses hues to express his subjective feelings and emotions
5. Scientific use – Scientific precision in the saturation and intensity of the hues
6. Symbolic – Meaning of colors changes from one cultural tradition to another

Red in the Philippines may represent war
Red in China may represent luck
Ways of Using Color
Value in Painting
- Is often synonymous to chiaroscuro ( Italian chiaro “clear”, and oscuro “dark”)
- May be evenly lighted with an eminent clarity of form and high saturation of hues

Example: Fra Angelico. Annunciation. Ca. 1438-45
Taken from: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/ANGELICO,_Fra_Annunciation,_1437-46_(2236990916).jpg
Value in Sculpture
- Is related to the material used. Marble has a natural sheen, bronze reflects light, alabaster is translucent with an inner glow
- Values of light and dark are achieved in the treatment of the surface which may be polished smooth, incised and marked for a rugged, irregular effect
- Can have hollows, protuberances, projections, and recesses, concave and convex section which are illuminated or in shadow
Taken from: http://www.henry-moore.org/images/leeds_lh59_0.jpg
Henry Moore’s Reclining Figure (1929)
Value in Architecture
- Value can be found in the kind of materials used and their combinations
- Value can be found in the architectural design itself
a.) Actual Textures
- When tactile sensations are conveyed by the original materials.
-Found in collages which may glue on a surface real objects like newspaper clippings, tickets, bottle caps, coins.
b.) Simulated Textures
- When textures render on a two-dimensional surface in which the textural quality of the objects is represented.
- Imitate the texture of real objects.
Taken from: https://www.univie.ac.at/ksa/apsis/aufi/yakan/table1.jpg
Taken from: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/1c/Janbrueghelark.jpg
Texture in Sculpture
- In sculpture, actual texture can be found in the natural quality of the medium.

For example: Hermes and the Infant Dionysus by Praxiteles. Praxiteles polished the marble medium to a high sheen

Pieta by Michelangelo. Polished also to a high sheen, bringing out delicate lines of the veins of the Christ figure.
Taken from: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Michelangelo's_Pieta_5450_cut_out_black.jpg
Taken from: http://www.soniahalliday.com/images/GR57-8-09.jpg
Modernist artists opened endless artistic possibilities in terms of new materials and textures, as well as techniques producing textures.

Example: Jean Dubuffet. Corps de DameI.1950 Jean Dubuffet used graffiti and sand, glass, and rope in his art
Contemporary Approaches to Texture
Taken from: http://www.oberlin.edu/amam/images/dubuffet_jean_ft.jpg
a.) Rectilinear – Signifies equality, precision, rational order, firmness, stability
b.) Curvilinear – Signifies perfection, eternity
Taken from: https://cias.rit.edu/media/uploads/faculty-s-projects/195/976_showcase_project_detail_item.jpeg
Taken from: http://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0265/3475/products/1940_largeview_d703d6ad-e9f7-4189-85f6-61e905ad705d_1024x1024.jpeg?v=1441988657
Shapes in Different Cultures
Shapes in Contemporary Art
Are derived from living organisms. Some may be microscopic and unicellular. The heart, the kidney, and the viscera are basic biomorphic shape, and also the leaves, flowers and fruit

Example: Maranao okir woodcarving, designs of the sari-manok, naga, and pako rabong
Geometric Shapes
Taken from: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-V1SEuoxZdHs/Tfzrm2fABWI/AAAAAAAAAWA/TPr0yDsMHBY/s1600/thepinoywarrior_sarimanok.jpg
Biomorphic Shapes
Found in painting and sculpture or the visual arts in general as inventions of the artist.
Often found in abstract art where they may suggest fantasy and whim.
May also be related to the doodling and automatic writing of surrealist art which draws images from the subconscious level of the mind.
Taken from: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-V1SEuoxZdHs/Tfzrm2fABWI/AAAAAAAAAWA/TPr0yDsMHBY/s1600/thepinoywarrior_sarimanok.jpg
Free Shapes
Example: Wassily Kandinsky. Sketch I for Composition VII. 1913
a. Balance – Presupposes units possessing relative weights situated in relation to each or one another to achieve feeling of equilibrium.
b. Proportion – Relationship of parts to each other and to the pictorial space.
c. Rhythm – Repetition of motifs or design elements consisting of line, value, color, texture or shape.
Space in Sculpture
- Being 3D, sculpture occupies space and interacts with its surrounding environment. Space is conveyed by the relationship of hollows and protuberances, of internal space consisting of holes, openings or apertures in the solid mass

Example: Henry Moore. Internal and External Forms. 1953-54
Taken from: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/af/20070530_Moore_-_Large_Interior_Form.JPG
Space in Architecture

Architecture does not only enclose space but manages it and designs the way that it flows within the different parts of the building as well as the way it interacts with the surrounding space.

Example: Cultural Center of the Philippines
Taken from: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/af/20070530_Moore_-_Large_Interior_Form.JPG
In 2D art, directional lines may suggest movement

-Example: Carlos Francisco’s Bonifacio mural at the Bulwagang Katipunan of the Manila City Hall, which has a revolutionary theme, showing strong sense of movement

In 3D art, can be implied or actual

-Examples: Discobolus or Discus Thrower, Daphne and Apollo
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