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Transcript of Cold War
1.) Truman Doctrine
John Fitzgerald Kennedy I
what am i staring at?
Did i blink?
Warsaw Pact (Communist nations joined) formed in response to NATO
This was the first "manned" moon landing, Kennedy did not live to see the US finish "the race to space" against the soviets.
"That's one small step for man,
one giant leap for mankind"
Fidel Castro leads a revolution in Cuba and sets up a Communist govt. He develops close ties with the Soviet Union
Berlin,Germany The Wall is Built
1962- October-After the Berlin wall went up, the Soviets started sending long range missiles to Cuba, the world watched as the US was on the Brink of nuclear attack.
American spy planes discovered missiles in Cuba
Kennedy responds by sending ships to blockade USSR ships from bringing more weapons.
US citizens waited in fear.
Khrushchev agreed to remove the weapons from Cuba.
ONLY THREE YEARS???
Up against Nixon. JFK chose (LBJ) Lyndon, sen. of TX as his running mate. He did this to attract southern voters. Kennedy won the election by 120k of popular votes.
What does he mean by this? Explain
Do you agree or disagree?
What is a "COLD WAR"?
State of political & military tension after WWII.
Western Bloc (USA)
Eastern Bloc (Soviet Union)
No large scale DIRECT fighting b/w the 2 sides.
Regional war (Korea & Vietnam)
Western VS Eastern Bloc
"Survival of the fittest"
Richest World power
Freedom of media
No elections/or fixed
Everyone helps everyone
Poor econ base
During this time the USA & Soviet Union fought together against the AXIS powers.
Tense Relationship (mistrust)
Russia enters war late---millions die
: WHY? Stalin &
Yalta Conference February 4-11, 1945
British Prime Minister
Franklin D. Roosevelt
1. Soviet support in the U.S.
Pacific war against Japan.
2. Soviet Union participation in the UN Security Council.
1. "The ? of Poland was one of honor"
Eastern Poland (Soviet power)
Western Poland (independent)
2. We enter the WAR IF...
US recognize Mongolian republic as indep. from China.
US recognize Russian interest in Manchurian RR
Deprivation of Japanese territory
1. Wanted free and democractic elections in the invaded territories after WWII.
(Poland: granted but NOT excersized by Stalin)
DO NOT ! I REPEAT DO NOT MAKE SAME MISTAKE!!!
Versailles Treaty, 1919
1. Germany would undergo demilitarization & de-nazification.
2. German reparations were partly to be in the form of forced labor.
3. Stalin agreed that France would have 4th Occ. zone in Germany, but it would have to be formed out of US/GB zones.
Potsdam Conference, July 1945
Proclamation Defining Terms Japanese Surrender
"We will not deviate from them. There are no alternatives. We shall brook no delay."
Terms of Surrender:
Elimination of authority that mislead people into world quest.
Territory limited to islands.
Justice -> -> war crimes to be accounted for
Industry allowed as such that does not produce war materials.
Fundamental democratic principles exercised
UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER OR UTTER DESTRUCTION
No mention of emperor (just authority)
Truman:"expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this earth."
What problems can you foresee with this division?
Winston Churchill: "The Sinews of Peace"
Study the P.C.
What is the Artist trying to say about the political situation in Europe?
US President Truman make the introduction.
@ Westminster College
Fulton, Missouri (pop 7,000)
March 5th, 1946
Crowd = 40,000
"From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an IRON CURTAIN has descended across the continent."
Goals for Post War
Europe's Democratic nations to
the rise of
Democracy for Poland & Eastern Europe.
Envisioned a world free markets &
Eastern Europe with
by the Soviet to balance the US western influence.
Keep Germany divided & weak
DO NOW: DO NOT SPEAK!!!
It was discovered that there is a
ng us. Someone in here cheated on the last C
On a notecard provided write down 2 class
tes names, that you believed could have cheated on th
st. The most frequently written names will auto
cally recieve a
If you refuse to write down 2 names, you
be considered the cheater, and will recieve a
This ia a FAKE social experiment. Play along away.
Preventing the Spread of
US wishes to
"contain" the spread of Communism.
The US referred to their foreign policy as
They used many measures in order to prevent the
USSR from expanding its influence on the world such as-- aid $$$$$$$$$$$$ & war.
The Truman Doctrine 3/1947
Explain what you see in 3-5 sentences?
(Primary Source Activity)
Read the statement made by President Truman on communism and answer the following questions.
"The people of a number of countries of the world have recently had
upon them against their will. At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one.
One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is
free institutions, representative gov't, free elections, individual liberty, freedom of speech & religion, and freedom from political oppression.
The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It
terror & oppression, a controlled press & radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.
that it must be the policy of the US to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.
we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.
that our help should be primarily through economic stability & orderly political process."
An example of : "Containment"
US provides aid to foreign countries fighting communism.
Aid is provided to GREECE & TURKEY
2.) Marshall Plan
The US provided
$13 BILLION aid in the form of food & $$$ to rebuild Europe.
Attempted to avoid
economic crisis similar to post WWI.
Attempt to stop the spread of
Communism-Soviet REJECTS the aid.
Truman Doctrine & the Marshall plan was Truman as, " the two halves of a walnut..."
What do you think this meant?
T.D. gave 400 million $$$ to support free peoples of the world.
M.P. gave 13 billion $$$ to European nations
THE BERLIN AIRLIFT
4/1948-5/1949, Soviets block/hold West Berlin hostage by cutting off all supplies.
America & Great Britain fly in supplies for 327 days & increase
US superpower prestige.
The Berlin Blockade Leads to fear of Soviet aggression & the creation of a defensive peace-time alliance!!!!!!!
During the "Red Scare" the HUAC was created.
House Committee on Un-American Activities
-Responsible for seaching communits influense in US.
-Claimed that hundreds of commies were in the US with no proof
-People are "blacklisted"
-It's meaning was an anti-communist fervor, reckless accusations, and guily by association.
-Came to describe someone of being disloyal without evidence.
said, "Our tragedy today is a general and universal physical fear so long sustained by now that we can even bear it. There are no longer problems of the spirit. There's only the question: When will be BLOWN UP?"
THE COLD WAR
Where is the Irony?
1949: The Soviets detonate an Atom Bomb: How will this affect the world?
Enter the Nuclear
Korean War: 6/1950-7/1953
Backed bt Soviet Union & China
Backed by US & UN
Presidents: Truman & Eisenhower
Soldiers: US provided 88% of soldiers to help S.K.
How did the war begin?
Japan had controlled the Korean peninsula until 1945. After WWII, the US & Soviets divided Korea @ 38th parallel.
(North Atlantic Treaty Org.)
N. Korea: Soviets
S. Korea: US
1950-war begins when
Communist N. invades S. in an attempt to reunite Korea under Communist rule
As part of
"containment" United Nations gets involved, led by US.
joins to stop UN.
US & USSR
were the only 2 nations who had the military, economic, & political strength to
-Both sides build up military to with stand attack by each other- this period is known as the "Nuclear Arms Race"
Captain American taking on the Red Guardian and the Supreme Soviets.
Equally matched in many ways.
"Mutal Assured Destruction"
-Both sides have so many nukes that no one will attack.
1945- United Nations is created
1st step: 1941 Inter-Allied Declaration
"To work together, with other free people, both in war and peace."
1952- Eisenhower (Ike) elected
Baby Boom, T.V., and Rock n' Roll emerge
Tensions increased in the US when the USSR launched
, the first space satellite (Nikita Khrushchev).
4 Oct 1957- The Race to Control Space was on...
April 12, 1961: Yuri Gagarin became first human in space and first to orbit Earth.
US felt a loss of prestige.
1947- CIA Formed
-An Intel Agency setup to gather strategic military and political information.
-Information became vital to safe guard domestic security and foreign relationships.
Sputnik II orbited around the earth
(National Aeronautical and Space Administration)
Triggered by Sputnik II being launched, America poured millions $$$$ into improving education (math & science)
1961- Bay of Pigs
Kennedy's 1st goal as president was to overthrow Cuba's govt.
April- the CIA planned an invasion along the shore
Failed immediately, as Cuba was able to kill 300 of the invaders (Cubans who were trained by America) and captured the rest.
HUGE embarrassment for Kennedy and America
Why does having the Soviets giving Cuba missile make Americans extremely uneasy?