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Metal Processes

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K Rae

on 12 November 2013

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Transcript of Metal Processes

Metal Processes
Piercing and Blanking
Die Casting
1. Clamp two halves of die together.
2. Inject molten metal into die at a high pressure.
3. Eject casting from die using ejector pins.
Press Forming
1. Feed sheet metal between the dies.
2. Bring dies together with force.
3. Separate dies and remove pressed form.
Metal Extrusion
Advantages & Disadvantages
Low Cost

Flexibility of shape (cross section)
Aluminium, Copper, lead, brass, bronze, magnesium alloys, steel.
Metal Bar
1. Billets are fed into chamber where they are heated and softened.
2. The metal is forced through a die (continuous).
3. The extruded metal is then cooled.
4. The product is cut to length or wound on a spoon.
Product Limitations

Size Variances (material swells as it exits).
Identifying Features
Smooth-walled long sections with uniform thickness, line texture may be
evident (extruded metal products with complex irregular profiles especially).
Metal Pipe
Pencil Sharpener
Advantages & Disadvantages

Large quantities of quality castings are required in industry

Expensive to produce moulds (dies).

High operating costs
Metal solidifies rapidly using cold chamber process.

Identifying Features
Section hair lines, ejector pin marks, flashes caused by leakages left on internal surfaces (doesn’t affect appearance), sprue and runner marks.
Toy Car
Tin Opener
Most types of metals in sheet or strip form - Mild steel, copper, aluminium, tin
plate. It is annealed first to minimise the risk of fracturing or tearing.
1. Feed sheet metal over die.
2. Bring down punch with force.
3. Bring up punch – feed in more metal sheet.
Advantages & Disadvantages
Fast Process

Cheap for mass production
Only suitable for large quantity work due to high tooling costs
Low melting temperature alloys, lead, zinc, aluminium and brass alloys.
Identifying Features
Shear marks, deformation, sheet material.
Various steels, copper, aluminium, tin plate, brass, alloys.
Car Body Panels
Advantages & Disadvantages
Strong shell like structure

Dies can be time consuming to make therefore expensive to produce.
Identifying Features
Sheet material, sudden directional changes i.e. sharp bends.
Component parts for tools
Sand Casting
Door Knocker
Non-Ferrous alloys, Aluminium, iron, Gold etc.
Drop Forging
1. A hot blank/billet is placed between the dies.
2. The die closes with extreme force. The hot metal is forced into the cavity.
3. Shaped blank is removed for further processing. Excess metal is squeezed out forming a flash around the parting line of the two dies. Flash is then removed for finish.
Steels, Aluminium, Alloys, Nickel, copper.
1. Place the pattern centrally in the drag.
2. Pack sand around the pattern.
3. Turn the drag over and attach the cope.
4. Insert sprue pins and pack sand around them.
5. Remove the sprue pins.
6. Split the mould box and cut ‘gates’.
7. Remove the pattern to leave a cavity.
8. Reassemble the cope so that the mould is ready to receive the molten metal.
9. Pour molten metal into runner. The melt fills the mould and exits along with gases via the riser.
Advantages & Disadvantages
Identifying Features
Multiple patterns decrease production time.
Low Production costs due to materials and equipment.
Create complex parts

Poor surface finish
Complex shapes, mainly solid, poor surface texture, Fettle marks (removal of
runner and riser).
Engine Parts
Advantages & Disadvantages

Process helps to increase strength of the metal.

Economic for large numbers of a product.
Not economical for short runs due to high cost of the die.
Identifying Features
May be evidence of flashing and flash removal around the edges of the product. May be die parting lines.
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