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The Meiji Restoration: 1868 to 1894
Transcript of The Meiji Restoration: 1868 to 1894
The Meiji Restoration
The introduction of Western technology into Japanese society allowed for development. Japanese society utilized Western telegraphs, railroads, harbors, and clocks. Domestic companies used technology for mass production. Toyoda Sakichi founded Toyoda Loom Works in 1906 and patented the world's most advanced automatic loom. They also used steamships and more Western technology in their military.
The Meiji Restoration lasted from 1868 to 1894 and was after the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate. It was named after Mutsuhito, their young emperor. Throughout the Meiji Restoration, young leaders centralized, industrialized, and imperialized Japan. Meiji also is translated to enlightened rule.
By: Stephanie Nguyen
During the Meiji restoration, heavy industry developed due to the fact that earlier times had industrial developing and financing. The government created state-owned enterprises for cloth and other consumer goods. Over time, the government sold their enterprises to private investors to zaibatsu, or conglomerates. Private businesses established properties and the government encouraged private business and innovation and as a result, the national income doubled. The government also placed a tariff on imports so that people would buy goods within Japan. The Japanese had a British/North American attitude towards capitalism. The value on printed money also decreased as a result of some unequal treaties that Japan signed.
The Meiji Restoration brought European influence to Japan through not just technology, but also culture such as their clothing, hairstyles, garden parties, and formal dances that rose in popularity. European art and novels also became promiment in Japanese society. With the end of feudalism came many other changes such as a new flexibility in social classes. There was a freedom to change one's social status, home, and occupation as well as practice whatever religion they wanted. Discrimination among social classes ended and the samurai class was also eliminated as a result of the new Western military. They then became farmers, business owners, and involved in trade. Furthermore, the daimyo no longer received money from the land that they owned.
Attitude Towards Gender
Meiji oligarchs were the new rulers of Japan & were
able to centralize the government, create a parliament,
and strengthen both the navy and military. The group of people that overthrew the shogunate served as advisors for the emperor who actually listened to what they had to say. Japan modeled their government off of Germany's imperial system, their navy off of Britain's, and their army off of Prussia's. Samurais and former armies were disbanded as there was now a conscript army which is essentially an army where each person is required to serve three years in the military. There were two wars during the Meiji period and both were successful which allowed Japan to be independent as well as global equality (compared to other countries) for them.
This is an image of Meiji Tennō, also known as Mutsuhito who ruled Japan during the Meiji Period.
This is a drawing of the Japanese army and navy using advanced technology such as guns and large ships. It exemplifies how the Japanese have strengthened their army and navy
This picture is the Japanese conscript army. They use cannons and guns with advanced technology. Furthermore, it shows how samurais and the former armies were disbanded. Now people from all social classes were required to fight.
The Meiji restoration saw a lot of positive and successful intellectual development in Japan. They embraced foreign ideas, instutitions, and techniques through calendars, postal services, and foreign experts that advised on medicine, science, and engineering. Japan during this time period has the highest literacy rate in Asia and under their fundamental code of education, 20,000 schools were opened including vocational, technical, and agricultural schools. They also created four imperial universities. Although during the Edo period, only children in high social classes could get an education, during the Meiji, all children were required to go to school.
This is a drawing of children during the Meiji period at school. Before this time period, only those in high social classes could get an education but it became more accessible and reuired during this time.
This is another drawing of children learning at a school during the Meiji period. Although both girls and boys attended school, there were more males.
Shinto was the main religion in Japan and in this, the Japanese believed that the emperor is related to the sun goddess thus is partially divine. The emperor was seen as a symbol of the and was the head of the religion. Japanese cultureThe previous religion was Buddhism but the Meiji replaced it with Shinto which united the people as it was associated with legendary and imperial times in Japan.
This is a photograph of Meiji Jingu which is Tokyo's largest Shinto shrine. It was built to honor the emperor during the Meiji Period, Meiji Tennō
This is another photograph of the Meiji Jingu shrine. It is a symbol of the Shinto religion and is built of wood, the sacred element, and unpainted so that it blends in with nature.
Women were not heavily involved in society during the Meiji period. 23% of women were enrolled in schools despite the fact that their education was encouraged. They worked in factories as a result of industrialization, mainly in the textile factories (80%) but in these factories were terrible conditions. They were both overworked and underpaid as well as exploited. Women had no legal power or the right to vote but they could divorce an abusive husband. They were denied a majority of legal rights due to the Civil Code and forced them to be under the control of the head of their households. With the consent of their husband, they could also own property. Their main job, however, was to maintain the household and raise children. The phrase "good wife wise mother" or ryosai kenbo was the ideal description of a woman. Women were also expected to wear Western clothes and were looked down upon if they cut their hair. Overall, society, as usual, was male dominated.
This is a painting of Japanese women during the Meiji period working. They were primarly involved in textiles, evident through this painting in which they are making dresses, shirts, and other clothes.
This is a painting of Japanese women in the Meiji period. They are wearing Western clothes as encouraged by the emperor with Western fashions in dresses and hats.
This is a picture of Toyoda Sakichi. When he travelled to Tokyo, he saw an immense amount of factories and machinery which made him passionate about motors and machinery. Toyoda went on to found Toyota, a famous car company.
This is a photograph of a Japanese railroad. Many railroads were built in Japan during the Meiji period as a result of industrialization.
Furthermore, taxes were placed on the people. In the beginning, farmers owned their own land and worked on it. When a 3% land tax was placed on them, the farmers were unable to pay and many of them lost their land. Although the tax was lowered to 2.5%, farmers still had their land confiscated and a tenant farming system was established. A blood tax was also placed where they actually took blood but mainly for medical uses. Thus, although Japan became prosperous with a capitalist economy, many farmers lost land.
This is the logo of Mitsubishi Motors, a private Japanese business. It is an example of one of the zaibatsus, or private conglomerates, that built a large number of factories.
This is a photograph of Matsukata Masayoshi who initiated the change in which government handed over their factories to private businesses, initiating capitalism.
This is a drawing of a woman during the Meiji period with different hairstyles along with hats. As industrialization occurred, there was more Western influence in culture such as the way women styled their hair.
This is a painting of a Japanese woman and man during the Meiji restoration time period. They both seem to have European wear with their hats, the woman's dress,, and the man's jacket and pants. They no longer wore kimonos, rather the Western dresses.