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Latin American Revolution DBQ

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Kara Christopher

on 9 November 2014

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Transcript of Latin American Revolution DBQ

Source:
"Mexican Constitution of 1824." Mexican Constitution of 1824. http://www.constitution.org/cons/mexico/constit1824.htm (accessed October 28, 2014).
Latin American Revolution DBQ
Erin McDuffie, Kara Christopher, Aqil Herb, Emma Sheehan
Document 2
During the time period of 1810-1825, countries in Latin America worked towards gaining independence from Europe. There were major divides in the social classes which led to dispute. The wealthy elite (Creoles) were offended by the monarchs efforts to control the colonies by inflicting high taxes. Once Napoleon took over Spain and Portugal, Latin Americans were motivated into revolution. While going into revolution, slavery was abolished to try to stop these uprisings. This was the first step to the crumbling of the plantation system in Latin America. This led to major social divides within the Native
American society. In an effort to unite the native peoples against the Spaniards, the Creoles created the idea of Americanos. They also promised freedom, social advancement, and an end to racial inequality. Eventually, Latin America gained independence, but the social reforms were not implemented. Furthermore, trade was disrupted between Latin America and Europe causing economic struggles in Latin America.
Historical Background
"We are not Europeans; we are not Indians; we are but a mixed species of aborigines and Spaniards. Americans by birth and Europeans by law, we find ourselves engaged in a dual conflict: we are disputing with the natives for titles of ownership, and at the same time we are struggling to maintain ourselves in the country that gave us birth against the opposition of the invaders. Thus our position is most extraordinary and complicated. But there is more. As our role has always been strictly passive and political existence nil, we find that our quest for liberty is now even more difficult of accomplishment."
Source:
Bolívar , Simón . "Simón de Bolívar: Message to the Congress of Angostura, 1819." Internet History Sourcebooks. http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/1819bolivar.asp (accessed October 27, 2014).

Document 3


Source:
Quote from Alexander Von Humboldt (a german scientist who visited the spanish empire around 1800) “Problems and Progress in Mexico” Written in 1811.

"Internet History Sourcebooks." Internet History Sourcebooks. http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/1800humboldt-mexico.asp (accessed October 28, 2014).
“The Mexican Indians, when we consider them en masse, offer a picture of extreme misery. Banished into the most barren districts, and indolent from nature, and more still from their political situation, the natives live only from ,hand to mouth. We should seek almost in vain among them for individuals who enjoy anything like a certain mediocrity of fortune. Instead, however, of a comfortable independency, we find a few families whose fortune appears so much the more colossal, as we least expect it among the lowest class of the people.”
This document depicts the social inequalities between classes in Latin America.
Why is this document important?
Document 4
Agriculture, industry, and commerce are the three bases of all prosperity. The province of New Mexico has none of these because of its location, because of the neglect with which the government has looked upon it up to the present time, and because of the annual withdrawal of the small income that it is able to derive from its products and manufactures. It has already been stated that the annual importation into the province of products for its consumption amounts to 112,000 pesos, and that its annual income is only 60,000 pesos. Therefore, there is an annual deficit of 52,000 pesos. The salaries paid by the treasury to the governor of the province, to his assistants, and to the 121 soldiers may be said to be the only income that keeps money in circulation. This income is so small, as we have previously stated, that until recently the majority of its inhabitants had never seen money.

Why is this document important?
Source:
Quotation from a representative of the Spanish parliment, Pedro Bautista Pino “Conditions in New Mexico” 1812

"Digital History." Digital History. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=3&psid=532 (accessed October 26, 2014).
This document shows the economic views of a peninsulare in Latin America.
Document 5
Document 6
Source:
"Topic 7." kaileeIMPERIALISM -. http://kaileeimperialism.wikispaces.com/Topic+7 (accessed October 28, 2014).
Why is this document important?
This document illustrates Latin American countries that broke away from European rules. This signifies their new political, economic, and social systems.
Document 7
Document 8:
We were absent from the universe in all things relative to the science of government and the administration of the state. We were never viceroys, never governors, except in extraordinary circumstances; hardly ever bishops or archbishops; never diplomats; soldiers only in lower ranks; nobles, but without noble privileges.

Source:
Simon de Bolivar
"The Jamaica Letter" 1815
Ways of the World Textbook with sources
Robert Strayer
Why is this document important?
This document is important because it illustrates how the Latin Americans civilians never got a chance to govern themselves and go through an American Enlightenment like Europe did.
Why is this document important?
This picture depicts a Latin American family and the social divide in the society because of the superiority of the white male. The indian and mestizo are a lower rank in society.
Document 9
TITLE 2 — Form of Government of the Nation, of its integral parts and division of Supreme Power

4. The Mexican Nation adopts for its Government, the form of Republican representative, popular Federal.

5. The parts of this Federation, are the States and Territories as follows: The State of the Chiapas, Chiuahua, Coahuila and Texas, Durango, Guanajuato, Mexico, Michoacan, New Leon, Oajaca, Puebla de los Angeles, Quetaro, Son Luis Potosi, Sinora and Sinaloa, Tobasco, Tumaulipas, Vera Cruz, Xalisco, Yucatan Tacatecas; the Territory of Upper Caliafomia, Lower Caliafomia, Colima and Santa Fe of New Mexico — a constitutional law shall fix the character of Tlaxcala.

6. The supreme power of the Federation will be divided for its exercises, in Legislative, Executive, and Judicial.
Latin American Revolution DBQ Prompt:
Analyze the economic, social, and political motives for revolution in Latin America from the year 1810 to 1825.

Why is this document important?
Why is this document important?
Bolivar explains the effects the social divide in Latin America has on the Spaniard's/ Creole's ability to control the natives and maintain their relationship with the mother country.
This part of the Mexican Constitution shows that the mexican people wanted to implement a political shift from the rule of an absolute monarch to the rule of the people shortly after gaining independence from Spain.
"To prevent South America from falling into the hands of the French, a nation without an inquisition and tolerant alike of Jew, heretic, and infidel, became a serious object with the priests; and hence, while the revolutionists proceeded at first cautiously, and only professed to hold the country for the legitimate sovereign, resisting the French usurpation, the priests were always to be found on the patriot side. They began to discover the necessity of more education among themselves; hence, books long proscribed and placed on the interdicted lists, were sought after, and read with eagerness. Persons were sent even to England to purchase these; and though, in the first heat of the moment, good and bad were taken together, and systems of all kinds mingled and confused, yet all tended to produce an anxious longing for independence, a serious determination to cast off the yoke of the mother country."
Source:
Graham , Maria. "British travelogues of independence-era Spanish America." Spanish American Independence. http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/spanishamericanind/traveloguesextract.html#maria (accessed October 27, 2014).

Why is this document important?
Article 15
In the Argentine Nation there are no slaves; the few that exist today are free from the promulgation of this Constitution; and a special law shall regulate the indemnification arising from this declaration. Any contract of purchase and sale of persons is a crime for which those performing it, and the notary or official approving it, shall be responsible. And slaves, by whatever manner they may be introduced, shall be free by the mere act of setting foot in the territory of the Republic.
Article 16
The Argentine Nation does not allow prerogatives of blood or birth; in it there are no personal privileges [to special legal rules or courts] or titles of nobility. All its inhabitants are equal before the law, and admissible for [public] employment without any other requisite than fitness. Equality is the basis of taxation and of public charges.
Sources:
Oxford University Press . "Argentina's Constitution of 1853, Reinstated in 1983, with Amendments through 1994." Constitute . https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Argentina_1994.pdf (accessed October 28, 2014).

Why is this document important?
Response to this DBQ:
European rule in Latin America during the 18nth and 19nth centuries affected the economy, government, and society of these native countries. Imperialism and colonization caused chaos among Latin American society. The idea of freedom struck the American world with new ideas floating around the area. The inequalities, struggle for power, and greed motivated the Americanos to begin the Latin American Revolutions.
Response Continued
Many Americanos saw the struggle for power as motivation to secede from European states. They wanted freedoms to create independent nations and were willing to do something about it. Simon Bolivar states, “We are disputing with the natives for titles of ownership, and at the same time we are struggling to maintain ourselves in the country that gave us birth against the opposition of the invaders” (document 3). Bolivar says that Latin America was having social problems because of European rule. He thinks that Latin America would be better off without Europe because they are causing these native struggles. From the perspective of Bolivar and many creoles, since all these people of different races were all born in America, they should unite to rise against the Spaniards. Bolivar claims they deserve justice and freedom. “We were never viceroys, never governors, except in extraordinary circumstances; hardly ever bishops or archbishops; never diplomats; soldiers only in lower ranks; nobles, but without noble privileges” (document 8), Bolivar states, showing that Latin America never went through an enlightenment and they never got a chance at these political roles so now they should get a chance to. Many other creoles feel the same way; they all know that their countries are strong enough and great enough to deserve independence. The map in document 6, shows the differences in political control from the time of 1790 and 1828. This provides proof that most countries in South America gained their independence, which proves that the creoles and other natives alike wanted independence, and fought for it.
Response Continued
Native Latin Americans also used their jealousy of foreign ideas and trade patterns to gain independence. When they started hearing rumors of education, they became curious and fascinated by this european idea. “They began to discover the necessity of more education among themselves; hence, books long proscribed and placed on the interdicted lists, were sought” (document 5). The Americans did not want to be like the French, so they started reading and becoming literate. Since South American citizens started reading, they became knowledgeable of other things and greedy with their new findings. Americans also wanted slavery abolished. In 1853, Argentina declared slavery abolished by stating, “All its inhabitants are equal before the law, and admissible for employment without any other requisite than fitness” (document 7). This push for illegal slavery shows that the Native Americans were willing to change things for their nations. However, things were different from a Spanish perspective. Spanish parliament representative Pedro Bautista Pino illustrates a different approach to colonization in Latin America. “The province of New Mexico has no bases of prosperity because of its location, because of the neglect with which the government has looked upon it up to the present time, and because of the annual withdrawal of the small income that it is able to derive from its products and manufactures” (document 4). From his perspective, if the Latin American region would cooperate and learn how to do western commerce, it would thrive. He believes that Spain is trying to help the natives by colonialism and imperialism. This inspired the Americans to secede even more, they were tired of the little to no pay and the tricks of the Europeans. The Americanos wanted to prove that they could have successful trade on their own. These things show that trade and ideals effected the reasons for gaining independence from Europe.
Bibliography
Modified Rubric
Response Continued
Response Continued
Inequality among different classes of Latin society caused tension, which led to the revolutions. Members of different classes were loyal to different sides of the “war”, which caused outbreaks and turmoil in America. In the picture of document 1, there is a mestizo family with a creole Spanish man and an Indian woman. This picture shows how the creoles took charge of everything by him pointing at the laborer, forcing him to continue working. This is one among many of the mestizo and mulatto classes getting angry at the creoles. This inequality made these native want to break free from European rule. They wanted the creoles to stop controlling them. “Banished into the most barren districts, and indolent from nature, and more still from their political situation, the natives live only from hand to mouth” (document 2). Most of the Native Americans were not treated equally in Latin culture up until the revolution. Even in trade, the mestizo and mulattoes were never considered equal so they never made money, which left the economy unstable. “This income is so small, as we have previously stated that until recently the majority of its inhabitants had never seen money” (document 4). Even more reason to want independence, to get money. Most of the American peoples did not understand what that meant, but revolutionists did. Revolutionists wanted to group all the natives together against the Spaniards and have equality for all. These revolutionists were the creoles who wanted to unite all American born people against the common enemy of the europeans.
Because of a struggle for power, greed, and inequality, the Native Americans had motive to gain their independence. They all wanted freedom from the Europeans rather they knew it or not. Even though most of the population was not heard. There is no voice of the mestizo or mulatto class, which is important because they were citizens to. If there was a document stating the poor people's point of view, they would say that the creoles are not on their side because they make them do all the hard work. They would feel like they cannot trust them because they have been mistreated. However, this would only motivate them even more to gain independence from Europe. With these new countries, the mestizos could write their own documents and decide the equality of the people. This is important because the mestizos and mulattoes and slaves make up a huge portion of the population. This portion has to be heard as well.
"Argentinian constitution of 1853 ." Constitute Project. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Argentina_1994.pdf (accessed October 26, 2014).
"British travelogues of independence-era Spanish America." Spanish American Independence. http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/spanishamericanind/traveloguesextract.html#maria (accessed October 27, 2014).
"Internet History Sourcebooks." Internet History Sourcebooks. http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/1819bolivar.asp (accessed October 27, 2014).
"Mestizo Family." Wikipictures. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/Mestizo.jpg (accessed October 24, 2014).
Strayer, Robert W.. Ways of the world: a brief global history. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2009.
"Mexican Constitution of 1824." Mexican Constitution of 1824. http://www.constitution.org/cons/mexico/constit1824.htm (accessed October 28, 2014).
"Topic 7." kaileeIMPERIALISM -. http://kaileeimperialism.wikispaces.com/Topic+7 (accessed October 28, 2014).
"Internet History Sourcebooks." Internet History Sourcebooks. http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/1800humboldt-mexico.asp (accessed October 28, 2014).
"Digital History." Digital History. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=3&psid=532 (accessed October 26, 2014).
"Topic 7." kaileeIMPERIALISM -. http://kaileeimperialism.wikispaces.com/Topic+7 (accessed October 28, 2014).
This document shows how the social statuses changed as a result of the revolution.
AP® WORLD HISTORY
2012 SCORING GUIDELINES
© 2012 The College Board.
Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.
Question 1
BASIC CORE (competence) 0–7 Points
1. Has acceptable thesis 1 Point
• The thesis must address a specific relationship between cricket and politics in
South Asia, using evidence from the documents.
• The thesis must be explicitly stated in the introduction or the specified
conclusion of the essay.
• The thesis may appear as one sentence or multiple sentences.
• A thesis that is split among multiple paragraphs is unacceptable.
• A thesis that merely restates the prompt is unacceptable.
• The thesis cannot be counted for credit in any other category.

2. Understands the basic meaning of documents 1 Point
• Students must address all 10 of the documents.
• Students must demonstrate understanding of the basic meaning of at least nine
documents.
• Students may demonstrate the basic meaning of a document by grouping it in
regard to a specific relationship between cricket and politics.
• Merely restating verbatim or quoting the content of the documents without context
does not adequately demonstrate an understanding of basic meaning.

3. Supports thesis with appropriate evidence from all or all but one document 2 Points
For 2 points:
• Specific and accurate evidence of the relationship between cricket and politics
must be explicitly drawn from a minimum of nine documents.
• Simply listing a document does not count as using the document as evidence.
For 1 point:
• Specific and accurate evidence of the relationship between cricket and politics
must be explicitly drawn from a minimum of eight documents.
• Simply listing a document does not count as using the document as evidence.

4. Analyzes point of view in at least two documents 1 Point
Students must correctly analyze point of view in at least two documents.
• Point of view explains why this particular person might have this particular opinion,
or what particular feature informs the author’s point of view.
• Students must move beyond mere description by explaining a document’s tone, the
characteristics of the author, the intended audience, and/or how the intended
outcome may have influenced the author’s opinion.
• Students may challenge the veracity of the author’s opinion or point of view but
must move beyond a mere statement that the author is “biased” by providing some
plausible analysis.
• Mere attribution is not sufficient. Attribution is copying or repeating information
verbatim from the source line of the document.
Modified Rubric Continued
5. Analyzes documents by grouping them in three ways 1 Point
• Students must explicitly and correctly group the documents in three ways.
• A minimum of two documents (used appropriately) constitutes a group or
subgroup.
• Students may not receive credit for both the larger group and the subgroups within
it.
• Groupings must address with coherence the specific relationship between cricket
and politics. Examples include:
o Positive influences of the relationship between politics and cricket, such as:
• Breaking racial or caste barriers
• Relaxing religious tensions
• Unifying South Asians, or South Asians and Europeans
o Negative influences of the relationship between politics and cricket, such as:
• Increasing religious or ethnic tensions
• Creating class antagonisms
o Development of nationalism
o Continuation of British imperialism
6. Identifies and explains the need for one type of appropriate additional
document or source 1 Point
• Students must identify an appropriate additional document, source, or voice and
explain how the document or source will contribute to analysis of the relationship
between cricket and politics in South Asia.
Subtotal 7 Points
EXPANDED CORE (excellence) 0–2 Points
Expands beyond basic core of 1–7 points. The basic core score of 7 must be achieved
before a student can earn expanded core points.
Examples:
• Provides consistent discussion of the relationship between cricket and politics
throughout the essay.
• Has a clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis.
o Goes well beyond the minimally acceptable thesis.
• Shows careful and insightful analysis of the documents.
o Recognition of the historical context of the documents.
o Recognition of the change/continuity in the relationship.
o Analyzes all 10 documents.
o Explains corroboration and links between documents.
• Uses documents persuasively as evidence.
• Analyzes point of view in most or all documents.
o Provides thoughtful analysis of author’s background, intended audience, tone,
or historical context. AP® WORLD HISTORY
2012 SCORING GUIDELINES
© 2012 The College Board.
Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.
Question 1 (continued)
• Includes groupings beyond the three required.
• Brings in accurate and relevant “outside” historical context.
• Explains why additional types of document(s) or sources are needed.
o Identifies more than one type of appropriate additional document.
o Provides a sophisticated explanation of why the additional document will
contribute to analysis.
o Request for additional document(s) is woven into the essay and integrated into
a broader analysis.
Subtotal 2 Points
Total 9 Points
Modified Rubric Continued
Modified Rubric Continued
Simon de Bolivar "The Jamaica Letter" 1815
Ways of the World Textbook with sources Robert Strayer


This excerpt shows the Latin American's attempting to further their knowledge and this new information pushing them towards revolution.
Source:
"Race and Ethnicity in Latin America ." Wikimedia Commons . http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/Mestizo.jpg (accessed October 28, 2014).
Full transcript