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Transcript of Industrial Revolution
Agricultural Spurs Industry
1. Farming Methods Improve
The I.R. was made possible by a change in farming in Western Europe.
Experiments led to
farmers mixing different kinds of soil
exchanged info thru farm journals
combined land to make larger farms
more efficient farming=surplus=profit
II. Britain Leads the Way
people distributed raw cotton to peasant families who spun it in to thread and wove it into cloth= very slow.
2. Inventions Speed Production
a. High textile demand = tech innovation
- spinning jenny (mult. threads at once)
- water frame
How to move the goods
a. Private roads that entrepreneurs charged people to use.
a. efficient and cheap
b. receive coal and raw materials, ship out goods
c. early success in the late 1700s early 1800s spawned a frenzy
3. Welcome the
a. were the preferred form of transportation.
went places rivers could not
People discovered new sources of energy- COAL!
1712 Thomas Newcomen created the steam engine that was powered by coal.
James Watt improved it and opened the door to operating machinery
2. Quality of Iron improves
discovered a way to produce less expensive and better-quality iron which would later be used for
III. Social Impact
-The movement of people to cities
a. needed to feed demand for workers
Life in the Factories and Mines
1. Factory Workers faced Harsh Conditions.
a. Shifts were 12 to 16 hours, six or seven days a week.
b. Many accidents
c. air was full of lint which damaged their lungs.
d. Many Children (5-8 years old) worked in factories to keep their families from starving.
e. mostly women- cheaper and easier to manage
"A blessing or a curse"
a. reformers eventually achieved improved working conditions
b. labor unions increased pay and shorter hours
c. mass-produced goods grew = more jobs
d. working class men got the right to vote
a. dangerous, harsh lives
b. rich got richer, poor got poorer
c. exploitation of women and children
IV. New ways of thinking
3. Thomas Malthus holds bleak view
a. predicted that population would outpace the food supply= poverty was inevitable
b. only check on population was war, disease, and famine
c. discouraged vaccinations and charity
d. eventually proved wrong
1. Created to end poverty and injustice.
own and operate the means of production
. b. grew out of concern for social justice
c. minimize gap b/w rich and poor
Industrial Revolution Spreads
A. New Industrial Powers Emerge
1. in 1807, British mechanic
opened factories in Belgium.
2. Nations race to industrialize.
a. Nations such as The United States, France, and Germany were able to keep up due to their abundant supply of coal, iron and other resources.
B. Technology Sparks Industrial Growth
In the 1880's Companies hired professionals and chemists to create new products and machines
1. Steel Production and Bessemer Process
i. discovered the process to convert iron into steel
2. Innovations in Chemistry
i. Created dynamite and funded the Nobel Prize
3. Electric Power Replaces Steam
a. Michael Faraday
i. Created first electric motor and dynamo (machine that generates electricity)
- Created the first electric light bulb
b. Nikolaus Otto
Created the first Gasoline-powered internal combustion engine.
b. In 1844
Samuel F.B Morse
developed the first telegraph.
the telegraph could send coded messages.
c. In 1876
Alexander Grahm Bell
patented the first telephone.
1. The Fight Against Disease
Advances in medicine and sanitation slowed death rates
b. Louis Pasteur
- Proved there was a connection between microbes and disease
i. Germ Theory
- Theory that microbes cause infectious Diseases.
- The process That kills microbes in milk
iii. Vaccines- against rabies and anthrax
City Life Changes
City Landscape Change
a. Urban Renewal-
The process of rebuilding poor areas,
i. first took place in Paris
ii. Georges Haussmen- Napoleon III's city planner
iii. decreased the risk of social unrest.
iv. created jobs
Advances In Working Class
1. Labour Unions begin to grow
a. Workers Protested:
constant threat of unemployment
helped sick or injured workers.
3. Child labor created
d. Standard of Living
but the gap between workers and middle class widened
D. Business Takes a New Direction
1. Rise of "Big Business"
a. big business was an establishment that was run by entrepreneurs who finance, manufacture and distribute goods.
b. New tech required a lot of money, or capital. To get capital, companies would sell
i. shares of their companies
c. Stock holders owned a tiny part of the company.
d. When large companies like steel foundries sold many shares they would become
III. Changing Attitudes and Values
B. Demand For Women's rights
1. Woman Granted Right to vote
2. Temperance Movement
- campaign to ban alcohol
3. Early Voices
a. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
- abolitionist and feminist
b. worked with Susan B. Anthony and Lucretia Mott
4. The Suffrage Struggle
a. Women's suffrage- right to vote
began in the mid 1800s
"too emotional to be allowed to vote"
"women belong in the home"
New Social Order
1. Three Social Classes Emerge
very rich business families
moving up the social ladder
mid level businessmen and professionals (doctors and scientists)
Books, songs and magazines created the cult of domesticity that idealized women and the home
nobles and peasant social classes were changed to lower, middle, and upper class.
Woman began protesting for rights
Granted the right to vote
Susan.B.Anthony Opposed slavery and organized movement for woman's rights
Woman were also Granted the right to have Certain Jobs
C. Growth of
In The 1800's Governments Set up public Schools and required children to have basic education
In 1879 "Normal Schools" Were set up to train teachers
lower class people could nw afford for their children to attend
More and more children were in one class
New scientific Theories
Atomic Theory created in the 1800's stated all mater was made of particles called atoms
Scientists and Religion debated over how/when the Earth was created
Charles Darwin Published his Contreversial Idea Of Evolution that went against religion
Romanticism vs. Realism
1. The Romantic Hero
a. artistic style emphasizing imagination, freedom, and emotion
b. went against Enlightenment writing
2. Inspired by the Past
a. combined history, legend and folklore
Victor Hugo- Hunchback of Notre Dame and 3 Musketeers
Ludwig van Beethoven- composer
The Industrial Revolution was a time when simple hand tools changed to complex.
Began in England
This change spread to North America and the globe.
It Began In 1750 in Britain.
Because the world was in need of new inventions to make life easier
Jethro Tull invents seed drill to not waste land- deposited seeds in row
a. Enclosure means less farm jobs
b. people move to the cities
3. Population increase
a. surplus of food reduced death from famine
b. better hygiene and sanitation
c. medical technology slowed deaths
1. Natural Resources- lots of coal and iron
a. plentiful resources
b. natural ports
c. navigable rivers
i. river power and canals
d. easy and cheap trade and communication
2. Effects of demand and capital
a. willing workforce and skilled mechanics eager to supply the demand for new products and tech
b. business class was able to produce
capital was needed to invest in
stable government encouraged this
d. In 1793,
created the Cotton gin to separate seeds from cotton = increased cotton production
a. many came from farm families
b. uncomfortable living environments-
c. tough and dangerous working conditions developed
3. The Working Class
2. Middle Class Women
a. well furnished homes
b. well dressed
c. spacious homes
d. took pride in hardwork
e. women did not leave home to work- raised children
i. Wealthy women had maidservants to raise children
a. Labor unions
were illegal during this time.
wanted worker reforms- increases in pay
violent riots and destruction of machines
1. businessmen embraced "hands off" approach
2. Adam Smith-
a. unregulated exchange of goods and services (i.e. free market) would benefit everyone not just the rich
b. more products and innovation means lower prices
4. David Ricardo Shares View
a. laissez faire view similar to Malthus
b. said wage increase was futile
i. believed higher wages led to more children and not status increase
c. government SHOULD NOT help the poor
i. people must improve life through thrift, hard work, limiting family size
1. Jeremy Bentham
a. utilitarianism advocate
b. "greatest happiness for greatest number"
c. believed some gov. involvement was necessary
John Stuart Mill
i. middle class were entitled to increase their own happiness but not at the expense of the working class
2. Are UTOPIANS Dreamers?
a. Robert Owen
i. successful mill owner
ii. refused child labor
iii.campaigned for reform
iv.encouraged labor unions
1. Steam Boats and Steam locomotives Replaced Sailboats and Horse Carriages.
2. The Auto Age Begins
b. began mass producing cars
a. In 1904, Orville and Wilbur Wright designed and flew their airplane in Kitty Hawk, NC
2. Sidewalks, Sewers, and Skyscrapers
a. Gas lamps were later replaced with electric street lights- increased safety
b. sewage systems made cities much healthier.
combat TB and cholera
c. Louis Sullivan
a. Corporations had the capital and power to move into new areas-
i. controlled entire industries or areas of the economy
c. John D. Rockefeller (Standard Oil)
Move Toward Monopolies
2. Hospital Care Improves
allowed for doctors to experiment
b. Florence Nightingale
- army nurse during the Crimean War
introduced better hygiene and sanitation in field hospitals
founded first nursing school
c. Jospeh Lister
discovered antiseptics prevented infection
a. Upper Class
Western Europe's wealthiest
very rich business families
wealthy entrepreneurs married into aristocratic families- noble status
nobles needed entrepreneur's money to maintain lifestyles
c. Lower Middle Class
Teachers and office workers
struggled to keep up with their "betters" of the upper middle class
b. Middle Class
growing class, pushing its way up the social ladder
mid level business people
professionals (doctors, lawyers, scientists)
wide range of material goods
3 Classes Emerge
d. Working Class
i. Workers and peasants
base of the social ladder
made up as much as 30% of the population in 1900
3. The Ideal Home
Middle Class Dominate Society
Families now spend more time buying household items than they do making them
1. Education Improves
a. Teachers began to be trained in normal schools
by 1881 in England schooling girls and boys ages 5-10 was compulsory
2. Higher Education
a. colleges and universities expanded too
b. added courses in the sciences
c. engineering schools to contribute to industrial society
d. a few small colleges for women opened
Bedford College and Mount Holyoke
1. Atomic Theory
- English Quaker schoolteacher developed modern atomic theory
showed each element had its own kind of atoms
different kinds of atoms combine to make different chemical substances
b. Dmitri Mendeleyev- grouped elements
basis for modern periodic table of the elements
2. Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
a. Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species
all forms of life, including humans, had evolved into their present state over millions of years
natural selection- "survival of the fittest"
3. Social Darwinism and Racism
a. some thinkers applied Darwin's theory to their own beliefs about society
unscientific belief that one racial group is superior to another
1. Novels depict grim reality
a. Tried to represent how the world really was without Romanticism
b. Focused on harsh side of life
c. Writers were committed to helping the unfortunate
b. Charles Dickens-
English novelist (realism)
a. Louis Daguerre
- improved the art of photography
- art seeking to capture the first fleeting impression made by a scene or object on the viewer's eye
2. Post Impressionist
a. Vincent van Gogh
- dreamlike quality paintings
b. Paul Gauguin
- "primitive" folk art
1. The Energy Revolution
3. Factories are born in Britain
a. new machines too expensive and large to use in homes
b. long sheds were built along water sources to house these new machines
People Move to Industrial Cities
New Social Classes Emerge
1. The Industrial
a. benefited the most from I.R.-
i. owners of new factories
c. merchants who made investments
e. skilled artisans
f. many "rags to riches" stories
4. Workers stage futile protests
5. Workers find comfort in religion
i. created a religious movement-Methodism
ii. he thought people lost connection with the church
b. emphasized hope
Why would this comfort workers?
Results of Industrialization
Karl Marx Calls for Worker Control
The Communist Manifesto
a. history was a class struggle b/w "haves" and "have nots"
b. bourgeoisie controlled society and its wealth
c. predicted proletariat would violently overthrow the bourgeoisie and est. a classless, communist society
i. wealth would be equally shared and end "the struggle"
i. invented the radio
ii. used Morse code- message from Britain to Canada
3. Airplanes Take Flight
"Captains of Industry vs. Robber Barons"
3. Move Toward Regulation
a. critics claimed monopolies and corporations interfered with laissez- faire economics (How?)
b. eventually some regulations were made
c. but most governments supported the entrepreneurs
II. Rise of Cities
- identified bacterium that caused tuberculosis
2. Middle Class Tastes and Values
a. "seen but not heard"
b. rules dictated social behaviour
a. cult of domesticity
i. idealized women and the home
ii. raising children, directing servants, charitable service
2. Realism in Drama
a. found in the plays of Henrik Ibsen,
A Doll's House
An Enemy of the People
The Visual Arts Take New Directions