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Transcript of Pre-Colonial Art
In southern Philippines, the Maranao and Tausug of Mindanao are known for
their okir, ornate curvilinear designs and motifs applied to wood carving. The
principal okir designs are the sarimanok, the naga, and the pako rabong.
- Jewelry, another ancient art, began as amulets and charms to ward off evil spirits and to give supernatural powers to the wearer. Later, jewelry assumed a purely ornamental character.
Muslim Art in the Philippines
Islamic art is characterized by designs of flowers, plant forms and geometric designs. It is used in calligraphy, architecture, painting, clothing and other forms of fine art. As Islam spread around the world, this distinct form of art has become an integral part of the identity of its followers, including the Philippines.
Okir or okkil is the term for geometric and flowing designs (often based on an elaborate leaf and vine pattern) and folk motifs that can be usually found in Maranao and Muslim-influenced artwork, especially in the southern Philippines, and in some parts of Southeast Asia. Okir a dato refers to the ornamental design for men and okir a bay to that for women.
Forbidden to paint living things and taught to revere the Qur'an, Islamic artists developed Arabic calligraphy into an art form. Calligraphers have long drawn from the Qur'an or proverbs as art, using the flowing Arabic language to express the beauty they perceive in the verses of Qur'an.
Through Migration and Trade during Pre-Colonial Period, there was a lively cultural interchange between the Philippines and other Asian countries. This helped Philippines to develop their own way of living, their own culture such as pottery, weaving, woodcarving, jewelry, etc. that they could use for their everyday living.
Pottery become more associated with objects for daily use, such as the palayok for cooking, and the banga and tapayan for storing liquids.
In the Ilocos, the making of burnay pottery continues as a lively tradition.
The Cordillera groups of the north are well-known for the art of
weaving. With a backstrap loom, they produce blankets and articles of clothing
that fulfill a practical function and also play a part in religion and ritual. This
tradition is also found in the adjacent Ilocos provinces which take pride in their
sturdy abel (weave). In Mindanao, the Tboli of Cotabato weave abaca cloth, called
tnalak, in a difficult tie-dye process.
The Tausūg or Suluk people are an ethnic group of the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The Tausūg are part of the wider political identity of Muslims of Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan known as the Moro ethnic group, who constitute the third largest ethnic group of Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan
The term Tausūg was derived from two words tau and sūg (or suluk in Malay) meaning "people of the current", referring to their homelands in the Sulu Archipelago.
Sabil (ritual sacrifice) - involves not only killing oneself but killing the person – and often even the members of person's family who is responsible for the dishonor
This is a weapon used to defend the honor of Tausugs
Tausugs are famous for their intricately carved scabbards and handles of weaponry sometimes incised mother of pearl
Like the Islamic societies in general, avoids representation of human and animal forms. But there are exceptions:
These are bird designs seen as a decorations on houses to ward off balbalan(ghouls) who prey on little childrens and corpes
used as decorations in gravemarkers and is a symbol of power and bravery
Buaya (crocodile) and horses
connected with animistic beliefs about the journey of spirit of the dead to the afterlife
Tausug art of craving, though is not highly developed as of the Maranaos or okir because Tausugs were engage in wars for centuries
- against the Spaniards and the Military
The Cordilleras are rich in baskets for all purposes, e.g., for rice planting on the mountain terraces, hunting in the forests, and fishing in the streams. Other woven art pieces are baskets, hats, and fans.
- The malong is a traditional "tube skirt" made of handwoven or machine-made multi-colored cotton cloth, bearing a variety of geometric or okir designs
- The malong is traditionally used as a garment by numerous tribes in the Southern Philippines and the Sulu Archipelago.
However, there is a long tradition in Islamic art of the depiction of human and animal figures, especially in painting and small anonymous relief figures as part of a decorative scheme.
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam.
Many mosques have elaborate domes, minarets, and prayer halls, in varying styles of architecture. Mosques originated on the Arabian Peninsula, but are now found in all inhabited continents.
The Golden Mosque(Masjid al-Dahab), in Quiapo, Philippines
The sarimanok is the stylized design of a bird holding a fish in its beak and/or standing on a base in the shape of a fish. While its meaning derives from epics and myths, it also alludes to Lake Lanao’s fertile waters.
The naga has the form of an elaborate mythical serpent or dragon with a vigorous S-curve
The pako rabong is a stylized growing fern with a broad base gracefully tapering upwards.
- The Cordillera groups have an ancient amulet design called the "ling-ling-o". Said to signify fertility, this is found in necklaces, rings, and
- Related to religious belief and to social function, body ornaments are worn to please the gods, to signify the status of the wearer and enhance her charms.