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ECED201 Group 2 Presentation

Review of Chapters 18-20

Kelly Martineau

on 7 April 2011

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Transcript of ECED201 Group 2 Presentation

Group 2 Presentation Kelly Martineau Allison Schlupp Erin Sears Alison Simon Natalie Hill Chapter 18
Physical Development, Health,
Safety and Nutrition:
Ages 3 to 6 Physical Development:

During preschool and school years, growth in height and weight is usually steady
Factors that affect physical growth
-Medical Conditions
-Emotional Well-Being Signs for concern:
Moving across two or more curves
Moving below the 5th (indicates chronic illness) or above the 95th (obese) percentile in weight
Height below the 5th percentile might indicate a deficiency in growth hormone

Physical development is linked to cognitive and social development

Children at the bottom of their age group in height are likely to be behind in cognitive development and academic achievement

Misnourished Children - they get enough to eat, but not the nutrients that they need Health During the preschool/kindergarten period, children should become more proportional in height and weight (when receiving proper nutrition)
Washing hands is the best defense against spreading infectious diseases
Teeth should be brushed twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste; child should visit the dentist by age 3
Sleep is extremely important for young children
Physical Fitness Adults will take care of their own fitness needs and neglect the child’s needs
Nearly half of preschool-aged children don’t get enough physical activity
Play areas need to be designed to provide safe and valuable physical activities for children with all types of disabilities
Children need 60 minutes of structured physical activity; ex. Stretching, twisting, swaying, marching, tag, dancing, jump rope
Types of play:
Physical activity play; running, climbing, chasing
Exercise play; fleeing, wrestling, chasing; vigorous and includes gross motor movements
Rough-and-tumble play; wrestling, grappling, kicking, tumbling Mental Health 1 in 10 suffers from some type of mental illness, but only 1 in 5 receives any type of mental health services
DAP curriculum promotes success and a positive self-concept

Dangers to young students:
Sitting in one place for extended periods of time
Standardized achievement tests
Lots of worksheets Nutrition Young children need foods that provide nutrients for growth and energy
Those with shared family mealtimes have been associated with reduced risk for pediatric obesity, less risk for substance abuse, promotion of language development, and better academic achievement
Supplemental nutrition help should be available as early as possible Undernourished individuals have a greater chance of exposure to additional risk factors:
Infection and lead exposure
Poor-quality schools
Parental underemployment
Lack of access to medical care

Obesity results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors
Proper supervision is critical for safety and prevention of injuries
Children who are risk-takers suffer from less injuries when in a highly supervised environment
Infants and young children are most vulnerable to environmental hazards due to their size and environments Nutrition and Health
Education Children and adults needs to be made aware of proper nutrition
Even young children are capable of learning which foods are good for them and which foods are unhealthy
Young children also need to learn the basic concepts of hygiene, health, and safety
They should learn basic habits
Brushing their teeth
Hand washing
Dressing appropriately for the weather Chapter 19
Motor Development:
Ages Three Through Six The preschool/ kindergarten time is when differentiation of various parts of the body is completed ad integration becomes the primary focus.
By age six, children begin to integrate movements because they can think about coordinating two or more movements.
Beginning in the toddler period and extending through age seven, fundamental motor skills develop.
Fundamental motor skills are the foundation for more specialized motor skills that will be learned when the child is older.
Specialized movements are individual skills developed according to each person’s particular needs and interests.

A movement pattern involves a sequence of three phases: preparation, action, and follow through.
The major caution is not to allow children to overuse their developing muscles. Outdoor Play Children need to have opportunities to run, climb, and slide outdoors and to have big blocks for muscle building and active circle time games indoors.

Developmentally appropriate playgrounds can provide an environment where children can burn off their excess weight while developing their motor skills.

Brachiating is the process of developing upper body strength through the use of over head equipment on a playground.
Flat surfaces provide space for gross motor skills such as running.
Playground equipment provides an opportunity for more complex movements such as climbing.
Adaptations must be made to playground equipment so children with disabilities can receive these benefits. Writing Six areas of prerequisite skills:
1. small-muscle development
2. eye-hand coordination
3. ability to hold a writing tool
4. ability to make basic strokes
5. letter perception
6. orientation to printed language
Examples of each:
Small-muscle development: Children using construction toys, peg dolls and little cars, clay and sand

Eye-hand coordination: A child who can hammer nails straight and copy complicated block designs

Holding a writing tool: This child can hold a pencil well with a loose grip.

Doing basic strokes: This child's drawings include lines, curves, and circles.

Letter perception: This child recognizes and names all the letters of the alphabet.

Orientation to printed language: A child sitting with an open book in his or her lap, pretending to read it.
Markers and felt tip pencils are the easiest to use for children because they require the least amount of pressure to produce the desired results.
Chalk is the next easiest, then crayons and pencils.
The younger writer should not be pressured too much about holding a pencil properly because they could become discouraged.
Hand writing grows out of drawing. Children move from scribbling to symbolic drawing. This is the same for writing.
Writing involves perception in the way that the child must perceive similarities and differences, shapes and sizes, and direction. By age three most young children should express and show interest in name writing.

-Parallels the development of writing skills

-Both involve many of the same lines and shapes ( straight/curved lines, crosses, dots, circles)
Developing Drawing Skills:

The pre-schooler goes through 2 main phases in his/her use of materials

1.Manipulatory-exploratory stage- child experiments to discover what can be done and not done with the drawing materials.

Drawing at this stage is referred to as scribbling, where they do not name what they make but experiment to find out what can be done.

2.Communicative phase- when children name and label their drawings, and know what can be done with the materials.
The RANDOM SCRIBBLE is the first stage in the development of art, when young children enjoy exploring the movement of their arms and shoulders and the resulting patterns on the paper.

When drawing the child develops from a random scribbler to a controlled movement pattern, to controlled line, to controlled shape, to named shape, and to symbolic shape.

Emergent Diagram Shapes—labeled by Kellogg (1970) as controlled scribbles that are drawn in prescribed space
Mature performance in certain kinds of motor skills has been shown to be predictive of readiness for kindergarten and first grade. Lack of progress in motor development may indicate a developmental delay or a need for assistive technology.

Assistive technology—any item, piece of equipment, or product system… that is used to increase, maintain or improve the functional capabilities of children with disabilities

Movement programs for children must be developmentally appropriate (age, individually, instructionally and culturally) for each child.
Assessment of Motor Skills Assessing Gross Motor Skill Development includes:

1.Gross Motor Control-running, hopping, jumping
2.Fine motor control-cutting pasting, manipulating objects
3.Visual perception-hand/eye coordination, spatial relations
4.Body awareness-hand preference (left, right, both), awareness of position in space

-copying forms like circles, crosses, squares
-completing pictures
-writing his/her name
-copying block constructions

Items concerning right and left, visual perception, and general information are also included Assessing Fine Motor Skill
Development includes: In this chapter, cognitive pertains to the mind and how it works. The cognitive system is made up of three parts:

Cognitive functioning describes how the cognitive system works.

Cognitive structure includes all the parts of the cognitive system; also, the content of the child’s mind and how it is organized.

Cognitive development refers to changes in cognitive structure and functioning that may take place over time.

The term refers to both what is in the mind (what the child knows) and how the mind works (how the child thinks) Chapter 20:
The Cognitive System
and Concept Development Cognitive Development Piaget found that the child uses his or her mind in a different way in each period of cognitive development. Therefore, he identified four periods of cognitive development. Piaget point of view- the child constructs his or her own knowledge from within. The adult acts as a guide and supplies the necessary opportunities for the child to interact with objects and people.

Vygotsky theory- emphasizes the importance of scaffolding in the ZPD by an adult or older child. Learning leads development as children receive instruction from more expert partners.

Similarities between Piaget and Vygotsky:
Natural development and social development take place simultaneously and interact.
Development is the result of experience in an environment.
As children develop, major qualitative changes occur in their thinking. Piaget emphasized the movement through stages, whereas Vygotsky emphasized the child’s increased language capabilities and that more expert instruction assists children in becoming more aware and in control of their own thinking. Supporting Cognitive Development say that the essential context for cognitive development in early childhood is a play-based curriculum.

They point out the value of younger children playing with older children as support for cognitive development as suggested by Vygotsky’s theory of ZPD.
Gmitrova and Gmitrov Within a child’s mind, there are units of thought. Large units of thought are concepts. These units of though are the bits and pieces that are used in the child’s thought process. Piaget called the simple units that start to develop in infancy schema. He believed that these are partial pictures of what the infant actually sees and experiences. A schema includes the highlights of what the infant perceives.

During the late sensorimotor and early preoperational periods, the child’s schemata join into preconcept groups. Preconcepts may be overgeneralizations or overdiscriminations.
When the child overgeneralizes, he or she encounters a new thing and places it in his or her mind where there is something like it.

Ex: Kate has in her mind a small, furry, four-legged “ki-ki”. We call it a cat. She sees a new thing that is small, furry and four-legged (a rabbit) and calls it “ki-ki”.

Although the child overgeneralizes with some things, he or she overdiscriminates with others. The child cannot seem to find a place for certain things that do not look the way the child expects them to.

Ex: John meets his teacher in the supermarket. He looks shocked, hands back, and clings to his dad. For him, this is not the same person he sees each day at nursery school. Mentally, he cannot accept his teacher out of context. Cognitive Structure Researchers are curious regarding when children begin to develop a theory of mind. This act of thinking about thought is called metacognition. As adults, we can think about our mental acts (recalling, reasoning, problem solving).

Berk (1998) points out that young children often use words such as think, remember, and pretend. They can also begin to understand that belief and reality can differ; that is, it is possible to hold false beliefs.

Much research focuses on children’s understanding of belief. One method for determining children’s understanding of belief is to look at how they explain false beliefs.
Ex: Soap shaped as a golf ball. They would examine the item and discover that their initial belief was false. Cognitive Structure Cognitive functioning refers to the way cognition works. The usual way to picture cognitive functioning is as a sequence that involves a stimulus and then some sort of activity in the mind followed by a response. This is an information-processing point of view. The stimulus is the input, the response is the output, and the internal activity is processing.

Input is acquired through perception. Once perceived, information is processed. Output is always some kind of motor expressive activity, such as speaking, writing, gesturing, or making facial expressions. Cognitive Functioning A great deal of interest has focused on how the brain functions during cognitive processing and learning.
Researchers have been especially interested in how different lobes of the brain function in controlling different types of cognitive, sensory, and motor activity. They may operate differently, but they communicate with each other and with other parts of the brain.
The brain goes through many changes throughout one’s life. The Brain and Cognition CONCEPTS Concepts are the building blocks of cognitive structure (Categories would include things such as people, animals, cars, and houses, or attributes such as red things, smooth things, and sweet things)

Each concept has many aspects and it is imperative to find out how far along they are in understanding the parts of the concepts, and putting them all together.

Piagets view of early concept development is very popular. It is meaningful to adults who work with young children and it is applicable to teaching and to understanding a young child.
Age 2, child has developed object permanence and has had their first real thoughts/ insights. Motor development has leveled off; acquiring language becomes the most important aspect of development.

This preoperational phase has been referred to as the “egocentric” stage, meaning the child centers perception around the most obvious things and they are bound by what they see. They also believe that seeing is believing and actions can not be reversed. (Ex. If pennies go from a line, to a pile, the child can not reverse this action in their head)

Pre-operational This thinking is reflected in the child’s everyday actions. The way that a child thinks of a person is related to their most immediate actions (the girl gave me candies, she is nice) When something happens to shake that belief , it is impossible for the child to accept.

At age 5 the child may be passing from preoperational into concrete, or adult, thinking. child is able to mentally reverse transformations. The child has to rely less on the most obvious parts of a problem and can retain several variables in the mind at the same time. This begins at age 7 and goes until around age 11.

Operations: actions that take place internally as part of the organized cognitive structure.
Concrete Operational Thought Classification: The ability to classify and categorize items in the environment. This could include separating things by shape, by color, or other categories. This is a concept that is basic to understanding math and science.

Can also include inclusion: This means seeing that there are sub groups of larger groups. This would be, for example, what cats and dogs are to animals.
Classification of Logical Thinking the ability to understand the transformation of materials without being fooled by appearances.

An example of this would be an arrangement of pennies. Arranging them in a 2x5 row, and then arranging them 5x2. A child PreK- K would not realize that there was the same amount of pennies, even though the order has been changed. CONSERVATION
One to one equality: the basis of understanding equality.

A child would think that a measure of pennies that goes a longer distance, means that there is more, while a shorter row may have more, closer together, the more distance means more to a child.
Seriation: ordering, putting things in order to according to some criterion, such as size age or color.

Children begin with comparisons such as big and little, and are further educated with stories such as red riding hood.

Spatial Concepts: concepts that include the following. In, on,over, under, into, together, beside, between, on top, inside, outside and below.

Using blocks is an excellent activity for learning about space.

Causality- why things happen as they do in the world “why” ( it is important to ask children their opinion and their view of why things happen in the world.)

Animism- giving human characteristics to nun-human items (a car, because it runs)

Artificialism- the feeling that everything in the world is made for people (the sun exists for us; we do not exist because of the sun.)

The Piagetian view of cognitive development has served as the basis for a great deal of research, and mathematics is a popular area for research on concept development.

A number of researchers have tried to accelerate mathematics learning through special training, and others state that by assessing children a different way will show that they know more than Piaget gave them credit for.

Research with young children has focused on their ability to count, and not their number sense.

Ginsburg, Lee, and Boyd point out that while children acquire a great deal of everyday mathematics through play, and organized curriculum, most educators are neither ready nor able to teach mathematics. There must be more in service education for mathematics, and intentional planning for math instruction for early childhood education. Applications to Mathematics Application of Piaget's Theory In the Classroom: Learning should be child centered
Learning occurs best in a self initiated activity, using real objects and use of thought.
Teachers should focus on individual children, and not the wide range of development in a classroom.
Interactions with other children, to show a less egocentric view
Importance of social interaction as supports (scaffolding)

Providing support at the right time at the right level ZPD)

Both Theorists emphasized play as a major means for concept learning.
Application of Vygotsky's Theory In the Classroom:
We should not be oversold on technology as the answer to children’s learning problems.
Overselling technology, and underestimating students is a failure to prepare them for challenges they will face

Technology can endanger concept development if introduced too early!
Concept Development and Technology
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