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musical instruments

the design of musical instruments
by

blake ross

on 2 December 2010

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Transcript of musical instruments

musical instruments what I'll be talking about How different musical intsruments produce different sounds The design of a guitar and how it produces its sound The design of a drum and how it produces sound The design of a piano and how it produces sound The design of a bagpipe and how it produces sound How musical instruments produce sound musical intruments are clasified into four categories : woodwind, brass, strung and percusion wood wind instruments wood winds create sound through blowing on a mouthpeice that is either a reed or a mouthpeice that is attached to a window or sound hole these waves can be made into tones which are controlled standing waves musical instruments produce tones by reflecting and refracting waves between two or more surfaces this is called trapping the waves musical instuments need to trap these waves so random noise isn't created but rather tone is created musical intruments can create different sounds by creating difererent pitches

pitch is a musical term for dfferent frequencies of waves these sound waves are evenly spaced waves of air molecules musicians have categorized these different pitches into seven notes A,B,C,D,E,F and G when a frequency has been halfed or doubled it has encountered an octave which is the same note but can be higher or lower sound is the result of a vibration woodwinds have either a reed or a sharp edge called window or sounhole that the air passes through these reeds or flutes create the vibration needed to create sound waves different pitches are created by covering openings or holes along the tube which make the tube shorter having more holes covered creates a slower frequency in the sound waves brass instruments Brass instruments create tone through a combination of blowing and vibration of the lips on a mouth peice vibration of lips causes vibration to move throughout the instrument and causes the air in side to vibrate and create sound waves brass instruments use a manual source of vibration wood wind instruments use an automatic source of vibration brass instruments create different pitches by pushing or sliding valves that make the tube shorter as the tube becomes shorter the frequency becomes greater strung instruments strung instruments create sound through the vibration of a string the vibration of the string is picked up at one or two ends of a string and vibrates the frame that the string is attached to different pitches on strung instruments are created when the string changes tension, length or, gauge as the tension and gauge become greater the frequency becomes greater as the length becomes shorter the frequency increases percussion instruments percussion instruments create sound through striking of the instrument the vibration of the strike is picked up by the frame of the instrument and is usualy sent out through a hole on the opposite end of the instrument the pitch of a percussion instrument is detirmined by the size of the area being struck as the surface area is increased the frequency is decreased Guitars The sound of a giutar is produced by the vibration of the six strings The vibration of the string is picked up by the bridge or saddle located on the body and that vibration moves through out the body the vibration on an acoustic guitar travells through the body and into a hollow chamber where that sound is amplified and expelled through the sound hole electric guitars pick up sound through an electronic device called a pick-up the pickups use magnets and faraday's law of induction to pick up the changing magnetic feild and convert it into electrical energy the magnets pick up vibration of the steel string and that changing magnetic feild energy is transfered into a coil of copper wire
it is then sent through some electrical components and will be sent into an amplifier where the energy is made into sound through a vibrating speaker the vibration of the strings is a standing wave creating a tone as it is trapped between two surfaces the bridge which is located on the body and the nut located at the top of the neck wood winds create sound by a vibrating air source travelling through a collomn brass instuments also create sound through a vibrating air source traveling through a colomn which is a change in medium which is a change in medium different pitches can only be made when there is a change in medium which is a change in medium which is a change in medium musical intruments can also create different sounds by using different tones by creating different shapes of waves, which depends on how the instrument creates vibration, or what material the instrument is made of Drum kit drum sets create sound through vibration when a drum head being struck or when a symbol is struck that vibration is then sent through the frame around the drum and is amplified within the cavity of the drum and with some drums is expelled through a sound hole a snare drum produces sound in the same way but utilises chords that vibrate using the existing vibration of the drum giving it a distinct sound a drums pitch can be changed by the size of the drum head or the tension of the head symbols do not create tone as the vibrating air is not trapped but the pitch can still be contolled by the size of the symbol some modern drum kits are electronic and use heads that track the vibration of the strike and convert that data into a digital sound that that was recorded previously from a real drum set these kits will never sound quite the same as a traditional drum set The Piano the piano uses a combination of percussion and strings to produce sound the pitch of a guitar is contolled by the legnth, guage and tension of the strings the length is controlled by the position in which your finger is placed on the fret board located on the neck the gauge is controlled by the string being played The tension is controlled by the tuners located on the head of the Guitar the tension of a drum head can be controlled by small tuning knobs located around the drum frame A key on the piano controlls a small hammer that hits several tightly stretched chords that are anchored down by pins at one end an a tuning mechanisms at the other thus making it posible to create standing waves the vibration of the strings travells into the pins and into a sound board that amplifies the sound the sound board is a large peice of wood with small wooden ribs across the back of it that help sread the strings vibration acoss its mass pianos also have a sustainace controll which are foot pedals that put a damper on the strings and mute the strings the pitch is contolled with the keys each key controlls the hammer that hits a different length of string some pianos also use electronics to create sound the keys are like buttons that initiate a pre recorded tone that is amplified through a speaker The bag pipes uses air flow to create vibrations air is blown through a tube and into a sack where the sack fills with air and that sack is squeezed This sack disperses the air through four other tubes all of which have their own reed that create the vibration needed to make sound the chanter is the pipe which controlls the pitch all of the other tubes called the drone pipes the pitch is controlled by several holes on the chanter and creates different pitches the same way as other woodwinds this tube is fitted with a non-return valve so blown air can only be dipersed through the other pipes two of the drone pipes are called the tenor drones and the other is called the bass drone sound is produced in waves some guitars are made with different wood, this is usualy for astetic perposes but also serves another perpose: to create different tone in the sound some wood absorbes more sound and gives it a mellow tone while other wood is very dense and reppels the sound giving it a bright tone percussion instruments are the oldest known musical instruments other than the voice dating to around 6000 B.C.E guitars date back to around 2500-2000 B.C.E and have evolved from ancient persia's setar the persian term "Tar" means strung strung intruments date back to around 3000 B.C.E. in sumeria wood wind instruments date back to the neolithic era and were made of bone into wistles electric guitars were devloped in 1931 by Adolph Rickenbacker pick-ups were invented in 1924 by Lloyd loar an employee of gibson guitars brass instruments originated from 2000 B.C.E to 1500 B.C.E. and were made of bone these early instruments were found in israel and rome later brass intstruments made of metal and utilzed valves were made in the 1600's in france these early strung intruments were simple bows of strings and bent wood How music impacts society although the drum dates back thousands of years the first grouping of drums and symbols dates back to the 1930's in new orleans parades the piano was deleoped in italy by a harpsicord maker by the name of bartomello cristofori in 1709 these pianos were made in 1946 by fender, rhodes the bagpipes were a scotish invention and date back to around 100 A.C.E. and were made of cow or pig stomach and wood pipes The Impact of Music music and society have been interacting since the time music was found music is used to reflect feelings and thoughts about certain matters weather it be personal or political music can reflect time of war and hard ship and will have a depressing tone music can also reflect times of happyness and joy and will sound very up beat people will always react to music in different ways weather it makes them sad, happy or just want to dance music has come a long way; from simple drum beats of indigenouse peoples all the way to electronic vibes and computer generated sounds
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