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Chemistry in Biology

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Amanda Burgess

on 11 December 2014

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Transcript of Chemistry in Biology

Chapter 6
Chemistry in Biology
Chemistry is
the study of matter.
All of our cells are
made up of
interacting molecules.
Atoms are the
building blocks of matter.
Atoms combine
to form molecules.
Electrons -- negative charge
Protons --
positive charge
Neutrons --
no charge
Each atom represents a different element, depending on the number of electrons and protons it has.
An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down any further -- it is made up of only one type of atom.
Atoms can gain or lose their neutrons and still remain the same element.
When atoms gain or lose protons they become different elements.
Different elements combine to form compounds.
Hydrogen + Oxygen = Water
Different atoms combine to form molecules
The forces that hold atoms together are called Chemical Bonds.
Covalent Bonds -- When atoms share electrons.

Molecules are held
together by covalent bonds.
Sometimes atoms gain or lose electrons.

These positive or negatively charged particles are called ions.

Two oppositely charged atoms
can attract each other --
forming an ionic bond.

Substances formed by atoms combining this way are called ionic compounds.
Van der Waals Forces

A weaker bond between atoms formed when slightly negative regions of an atom attract a slightly
positive region on
another atom.
When atoms or groups of atoms are rearranged to make new substances, it is called a Chemical Reaction.

Chemical reactions are taking place throughout your body at the cellular level in order to maintain homeostasis and transport nutrients.
Chemical Reactions
In a chemical reaction,
the starting substances are called Reactants
and the substances formed in the end are called Products.
Chemical reactions can be written out as equations.
In order to take place, most chemical reactions require energy.

The minimum amount of energy that a reaction needs to take place is called its Activation Energy.

Many chemical reactions are slow to take place and have a high activation energy.

A Catalyst can reduce the activation energy needed and speed up a reaction.
Many of our body's processes require enzymes:

Muscle contraction
DNA replication
Cell division
Enzymes work by binding to the reactants, then changing shape and releasing them as products.

Enzymes may assist in breaking bonds or creating new ones.

Reactants that bind to an enzyme are called Substrates.
The Building Blocks of Life
Carbon molecules make up large structures called polymers.

Polymers are repeating units of similar compounds.
monosaccharides -->
made up of fatty acids
Nucleic Acids
made up of nucleotides
Amino Acids combine to form Proteins
⬜Section 1

1) Identify the particles that make up atoms.

2) Diagram the particles that make up an atom.

3) Compare covalent bonds and ionic bonds.

4) Describe van der Waals forces.

Chapter Objectives
Section 2

5) Identify the parts of a chemical reaction.

6) Relate energy changes to chemical reactions.

7) Summarize the importance of enzymes in living organisms.

Chapter Objectives
Chapter Objectives
Section 3

8) Evaluate how the structure of water makes it a good solvent.

9) Compare and contrast solutions and suspensions.

10) Describe the difference between acids and bases.

Section 4

11) Describe the role of carbon in living organisms.

12) Summarize the four major families of biological macromolecules.

13) Compare the functions of each group of biological macromolecules.
Chapter Objectives
Different ways to represent molecules:
Each ball represents an atom.
These atoms are called isotopes.
Exothermic reactions release energy in the form of heat as they take place.
Endothermic reactions absorb heat energy.
Catalysts are especially useful because they do not get used up in the reaction and can be used again and again.
An Enzyme is a biological catalyst in the form of a protein.
The carbon atom is found in nearly all biological molecules, it reacts easily with most atoms
Life is said to be carbon-based.
and it
Polymers are also called Macromolecules.
There are 4 major classes:

Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates serve as an
important source of energy
in living things.
Energy is stored in larger,
complex carbs.
Carbohydrates also act as structural support molecules in the form of cellulose and chitin.
Nucleic acids serve to hold genetic information.
There are 2 important nucleic acids in living things:
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
is an important nucleotide
used for energy transfer.
Lipids are fats and oils,
they serve as energy storage molecules.
Fat molecules are saturated if they have no double bonds,
unsaturated if they do.
Phospholipids make
up cell membranes.
Steroids and cholesterols are also lipids.
Proteins serve many functions in cells.
Enzymes are proteins that speed up reactions.
Many cellular processes are controlled by proteins.
Muscles and hair are made up of proteins.
There are 20 different amino acids.

Amino acid chains fold into complex shapes to make different proteins.
Closure Activity:
One Opinion I Now Have:
Two Questions that I Still Have:
Three Things I learned:

Closure Activity:
One Opinion I Now Have:
Two Questions that I Still Have:
Three Things I learned:

Closure Activity:
One Opinion I Now Have:
Two Questions that I Still Have:
Three Things I learned:

Water and Solutions
Water is a polar molecule -- it has an uneven distribution of charges.

Positive at one end, negative at the other.
Hydrogen Bonding
A type of van der Waals force involving hydrogen and either oxygen, fluorine, or nitrogen.
Water's polarity gives it many unique qualities.
Water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid.
Water molecules stick to each other, causing surface tension.
Water molecules stick to other things, causing capillary action.
Water is an incredible solvent!
Mixture -- a combination of two
Homogeneous mixture -- consistent throughout. Also called a solution.
Solvent -- the substance that does the dissolving
Solute -- the substance that dissolves

Heterogeneous mixture -- remains separated.
aka a suspension.

Acids and Bases
Substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water are acids. Example: HCl

Substances that release hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water are bases. Example: NaOH

The concentration of H+ in a solution is measured using the pH scale: 0-6 is acidic, 7 is neutral, 8-14 is basic.

A buffer is a solution that helps neutralize pH.
Closure Activity:
One Opinion I Now Have:
Two Questions that I Still Have:
Three Things I learned:
Full transcript