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Cyanide

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Sarah Wiatr

on 26 April 2014

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Transcript of Cyanide

Cyanide
Chapter 3
Created by: Owen, Aaron, David, and Sarah

Types of Cyanide
Potassium Cyanide
Hydrogen Cyanide
Sodium Cyanide
How Does This
Poison Work
Works in the span of 2-5 minutes
Lesser amounts kill more slowly
Poison either is ingested or inhaled
Cyanide shuts down body's ability to carry or absorb oxygen.


Survival Time
After ingestion, survival time is between 15-45 minutes.
Cyanide shreds energy mechanisms, breaks down cellular respiration, and causes rapid cell death due to oxygen deprivation.
At a Cellular Level
Protein Attachment
Cyanide attaches to molecules called hemoglobin in the blood stream.
Causes an increase in circulation because the body is looking for any trace of O2
Veins from the lungs to the heart (pulmonary veins) become engorged with blood.
Cyanide in the Bloodstream
The Body's Response
The body responds through convulsions, gasping for air, rising of bloody froth of vomit and saliva, followed by death.
Doctors Diagnosis Autopsy
Skin is Blue - Oxygen Deprivation
Blood is Dark Red- Appears Purple
Veins from Lung to Heart Congested- Heart Desperate
Mucous Membranes: Lips, Mouth, Esophagus Darkened Bloody Red-Corrosive
Stomach- Swollen, Clotted by Swampy Mucous

Docs Diagnosis: Prussian Blue Test
Add Iron Rich Salts To Distilled Liquid, and Heat
When Cooled Muddy Brown Layer Settles at Bottom
Add Hydrochloric Acid Until Sludge Starts to Dissolve
If High Level of Cyanide Blue Layer Immediately Forms
If Only a Little Cyanide Turn Green, Then Slowly Blue
First Uses
Commonly Found In:
Dosage
High
Low
Modern Chemical Indicator Tests:
Prussian Blue
para-Benzoquione in DMSO
Reacts with inorganic cyanide to produce bright green or blue under UV light.
Copper with an aromatic amine
In the presents of cyanide, copper will turn the amine blue.
Antidotes for Cyanide Poisoning
Amyl nitrite and Sodium nitrite:
Oxidize hemoglobin
4-Dimethylaminophenol
Produces methaemoglobin
Dicobalt edetate
Cobalt binds to cyanide, must be administered with glucose because of toxicity
Sodium thiosulphate
penetrates cell and mitochondrial membranes
Hydroxocobalanim (vitamin B12)
The active drugs turn cyanide into B12, causes skin and urine to turn bright red
Pyridine-Barbituric acid Colorimetry
Cyanide reacts with chlorine to form Cyanogen Chloride which yields red.
Gas diffusion flow injection analysis-Amperometry
Only HCN will pass through a hydrophobic gas diffusion membrane.
Modern Chemical Indicator Tests Continued:
Crystal
Gas
<200mg
>100mg
<50mg
>20mg
References
https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/molecule-of-the-week/archive/molecule-of-the-week-hydrogen-cyanide.html
http://www.cyanokit.com/sites/default/files/slide2.jpg
http://drugline.org/medic/term/pulmonary-vein/
http://www.firefighterclosecalls.com/downloads.php
jenson.in/dicts_mal_more.php?word=convulsion&submit=1
http://www.masimo.cn/hemoglobin/anemia.htm
http://weaponofwwii.weebly.com/uploads/1/4/1/6/14167091/8126704.jpg
http://www.dovecleaners.com/images/blue_die.jpg
http://www.saardrimer.com/pics/cig_warning.jpg
http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/02195/carExhaust_2195976b.jpg
http://healingisessential.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/pm_almonds2111.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Spinach_leaves.jpg
http://www.natures-health-foods.com/images/Lima-beans.jpg
http://www.saplinglearning.com/tryit.php
http://www.cmaj.ca/content/180/2/251/F1.expansion.html
http://kisstothepop.blogspot.com/
http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.8681.html
http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.8587.html
http://funny-answers.vidzshare.net/hcl-lewis-structure/dkreutz.basd.k12.wi.us*N2.jpg/
http://www.stampoutsmoking.com/advertisements/cyanide/
http://abclocal.go.com/ktrk/story?section=news/local&id=6964290
http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/cyanide/
http://pilotproductions.us/ahby/BlueYoda14.jpg
Blum D. (2010). Cyanide. The Poisoners Handbook (50-75). New York: Penguin Press.
New drug to treat cyanide poisoning. (2007). FDA Consumer, 41(2), 6-7
Reade, M., Davies, S., Morley, P., Dennett, J., & Jacobs, I. (2012). Review article: Management of cyanide poisoning. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 24(3), 225-238
Cescon, D., & Juurlink, D. (2009). Discoloration of skin and urine after treatment with hydroxocobalamin for cyanide poisoning. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal = Journal De L'association Medicale Canadienne, 180(2), 251

World War I Poison
Prussic Acid Medicine
Full transcript