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media as actor of global policy
Transcript of media as actor of global policy
Professor Faculty of Media Communication
Historically since first newspapers different states limited access to international information
Bonaparte's strategy of filtering
Otto von Bismark
Main approaches from point of view of media studies
The "center-periphery" issue. The model of Marx within the planetary dimension: rich countries possessing means of production while Third World is global employees
Conferences of "non-aligned countries" in 1970-s discussed few times the question of unequal information flows distribution
Claims for New international information and communication order (analogue of New international economic order)
Sean McBride UNESCO commission for studying unequal distribution of communication flows
The report "Many voices. One World" became a "dialogue of surd": conflicting interests between claims from Third World countries, US claims to maintain level of information exchange freedom and USSR interests to "preserve information sovereignty".
US and UK leaves UNESCO till mid 2000-s
Contemporary problematic (after 1990)
How international media are contributing to change of local information policies
Generally consumed international broadcasting is making pressure on local regimes unable to hide some information
Reconsidering piracy as tool to making accessible the information and ideologies
Media as actor of global policy
Modernizational approach (MIT School)
Daniel Lerner: "Passing of traditional society: modernizing the Middle East" (1958):
Modernization is a cultural process
Mass communication are playing crucial role in this process by spreading out a way of life outside proper expirience
Political participation, mass literacy
Ithiel de Sola Pool: "Technologies of freedom".
Technological revolution will completely destroy borders between information ecosystems of different countries
This will incite "over regulated" media systems of non-democractic countries to evolve toward commercial media model which is libertarian one
Separate nations will have separate networks, as they do now, but these will interconnect. Within nations, the satellite carriers, microwave carriers, and local carriers may be—and in the United States almost certainly will be—in the hands of separate organizations, but they will interconnect. So even the basic physical network will be a network of networks. And on top of the physical networks will be a pyramid of service networks. Through them will be published or delivered to the public a variety of things: movies, music, money, education, news, meetings, scientific data, manuscripts, petitions, and editorials.
Cultural imperialism and cultural domination (Schiller: Mass communication and American Empire; Communication and cultural domination):
Diffusion of american ideology using neoliberal "free flow of information" doctrine
Domination of US media industry on global media market and consequently the high pressure power
Armand Mattelart: How to Read Donald Duck: Imperialist Ideology in the Disney Comic (1972)
Flow measurement: Kaarle Nordenstreng and Tapio Varis "The television traffic: a one way street". The domination of television programs from rich North on media markets of poor South.
Brzezinski: "Great Chess Game: The Role of America in Technotronic Era".
Direct penetration era
Since beginning of XX century media became transborder: international radio broadcasting, the second half of the century - direct satellite broadcasting TV
The information is diffused globally: world became "global village" (McLuhan)
US and USSR - main actors in the field
US doctrine of free flow of information (mid 1950)
Creation of MPAA to represent common interests of american movie industry abroad
Creation of USIA: system of international US broadcast: stations under the coverage and official stations
US vs USSR
Doctrine of USSR during Khrushev: attaching to the soviet perimeter of ex-colonies
Brezhnev's doctrine: USSR should directly penetrate into sovereignty of Central European countries
Truman's doctrine: counterbalance Soviet Union
Mostly ideological concept. USSR has been based on isolation because whole soviet state identity has been based on soviet ideology. Direct penetration of western content into soviet media could destroy such ideology
Revising critical approach
The universal idea to ellaborate "national communication policies" lead finally to censorship in some "Third World countries" (the imperialist idea was a good occasion for some regimes to establish censorship) (Armand Mattelart).
The "reception studies" turn. If there is a domination at the level of production it is probably not the case at the reception level. Study by Katz about reception of Dallas (Katz. Liebes)
New cartography of flows
The McBride report
Purely quantitative measurement of inequalities
Only technological infrastructure could be measured (not the ability of people to use it)
Digital divide concept was born here
Measuring digitally poor and digitally rich
Parallel public spheres
Tristan Mattelart "Audiovisual Trojan horse" (1995): soviet regime has been generally based on ideological control and filtering of information. During second half of XX century international broadcasting, non-legal import of western music, video, literature contributed to progressive opening of soviet regime (especially in Central Europe) and to creation of parallel public sphere (which became the main driver of change "from below")
Mattelart (ed.) "Internationalization of media against the censorship". International broadcasting (especially RFI in African countries) by disclosing some information for african listeners is making pressure on local regimes which are nowadays unable to hide all the informations
The case of Russia Today
Has been created in 2005 like "propagandist tool for improve the exterior image of Russia abroad".
But Russia Today can't neglect some Russian events which could be banned inside Russia by Russian channels
In 2011-2012 RT has been the main channel which provided video from protest rallies to "opposition" Dozhd TV channel.
Piracy and accessibility
Piracy has been considered before like purely legal issue (which has been supported by big majors)
Piracy also has been a marker of "undeveloped economies"
Cultural dimension of piracy: piracy like local response to hegemony of majors (Mattelart T.). A way to distribute ideologies and cultures across globe
Piracy like supply and demand issue (Karaganis)
Contemporary problematic (new media)
New social media like actor of global policy enabling new kind of activism (digitally enabled activism (Bennett).
Some scholars gives a superpower to digital "mass-self communication" which are associated with participative tool for civic engagement.
"Arab Spring" has been considered as a start of a new era when digital social networks will be able to change political regimes.
Actually we could see that this sort of technological determinism is neglecting a lot of institutional differences between very different states where finally "digital revolutions" bringing to reproducing inequalities, political fracture and semi-hegemonic regimes
Historically, social movements have been dependent on the existence of specific communication mechanisms: rumors, sermons, pamphlets and manifestos, spread from person to person... In our time, multimodal, digital networks of horizontal communication are the fastest and most autonomous, interactive, reprogrammable and self-expanding means of communication in history. The characteristics of communication processes between individuals engaged in the social movement determine the organizational characteristics of the social movement itself: the more interactive and self-configurable communication is, the less hierarchical is the organization and the more participatory is the movement. This is why the networked social movements of the digital age represent a new species of social movements.