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PP6702: Policy Implementation
Transcript of PP6702: Policy Implementation
PP6702: Foundations of Public Policy
February 16, 2013 F. Pearl Eliadis, Margaret M. Hill, Michael Howlett.
From Instruments to Governance Policy Instrument: Definition and Evolution Addresses influence of policy context
Analyzes nature of instrument mixes
Explores the potential to develop optimal policy-instrument designs
Could overcome the gap between theory and practice
Policy-Instrument Mix = Governance Strategy Second-Generation Analysis In Theory: Substitutable
In practice: Mixed
Substantive PI + Procedural PI = Implementation Style Policy Instrument Types Thank You! Procedural Policy Instruments External Contexts (Salamon and Lund)
Configuration of the PI mix
BUT, often instrument choices are viewed through ideological or conceptual lens (“one size fits all,” “good vs. evil,” single PI) Optimal Instrument Choice is Affected by: Implementation Style – despite a wide range of PI choices, gov’ts “often repeatedly choose from a much more limited set of options” (p.42) =substantive + procedural
Models based on two key variables (Tables 2.3 and 2.4):
Substantive: level of state capacity, level of policy-subsystem complexity
Procedural: level of sectoral delegitimation, level of systemic delegitimation
legitimacy (credibility) of existing processes and procedures: a means of altering network configurations in order to construct or regain legitimacy
macro (system-wide) level
meso (sectoral) level
the nature of the network or subsystem being manipulated Instrument Mixes & Implementation Styles Questions? Overview M. Howlett: Ch.2 on Policy Instruments
What is PI?
Economists vs. Political Scientists
First-Generation vs. Second-Generation Analysis
Types of PIs Combined = PI Mixes = Implementation Styles
How to make an optimal choice?
G.Peters: Conclusion on the Future of Instruments Research
Why are PIs important?
PIs, Organizations and Governance Policy Instrument – “a technique of governance that, one way or another, involves the utilization of state authority or its conscious limitation” (p.31) Economists (deductive): business-govt relations, effects on business efficiency
Political scientists (inductive, normative): based on empirics, understand the rationale for policy-instrument choice
1. Choose one/technical in nature
2. “good vs. evil,” pro-market vs. non-market First-Generation
Second Generation First-Generation Q:
“Why do policy makers utilize a certain instrument?”
“Why is a particular combination of procedural and substantive instruments utilized in a specific sector?” Basic Taxonomies of Policy Instruments Harold Lasswell: manipulation of symbols, signs and icons by the gov’ts are the main instruments
Early 1980s: Lester Salamon: categorization of PIs to understand ‘why’ they are used and to which one is better to apply in a particular situation
Post-Salamon era: single-instrument selection (substantive PIs)
2000s: procedural instruments Substantive Policy Instruments Rationale for Instrument Choice Howlett & Ramesh: a spectrum of substantive instruments based on Hood’s taxonomy
Klijn, Kickert, Koppenjan, and De Bruijn and ten Heuvelhof: procedural PIs Implementation Style G. Peters. The Future of Instruments Research PIs have some autonomous effects and can independently impact policies
PIs affect practical and political success
E.g.: it’s not the feasibility of the goal, but a choice of imix that could lead to a policy failure
It is important to:
- understand specific instruments, their mixes, and contexts
- extend empirical research
to involve nonofficial actors in the delivery of services (multiple principals and agents) Premises:
- A reasonably good understanding of how individual instruments perform in a functional, technical manner
- In addition to technical analysis, include political, ethical, and managerial dimensions
- Political setting (political coalition + legitimacy)
- multiple assessment criteria (trade-offs, baseline, prioritization)
- multiple instruments (mixes)
- institutional capacity for implementation of PIs (organizational culture) Selection of Policy Instruments Policy Cycles: Implementation