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Chagas Disease: Epi Triad

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Katie Nicholas

on 23 March 2014

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Transcript of Chagas Disease: Epi Triad

Chagas Disease The Kiss of Death What is Chagas Disease? References Black Bug of the Pampus Epidemiological Triad By Katie Nicholas Beach … if a finger was presented, the bold insect would immediately draw its sucker, make a charge, and if allowed, draw blood. No pain was caused by the wound. It was curious to watch its body during the act of sucking, as it changed in less than ten minutes, from being as flat as a wafer to a globular form.
Charles Darwin, 1835 At night I experienced an attack (for it deserves no less a name) of the Benchuca (a species of Reduvius) the great black bug of the Pampas. It is most disgusting to feel soft wingless insects, about an inch long, crawling over one's body. Before sucking they are quite thin, but afterwards they become round and bloated with blood, and in this state are easily crushed... What is Chagas Disease? Chagas Disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially fatal disease caused by the parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi
Chagas disease can cause serious heart and stomach illnesses "Knowing the domiciliary habits of the insect, and its abundance in all the human habitations of the region, we immediately stayed on, interested in finding out the exact biology of the barbeiro, and the transmission of some parasite to man or to another vertebrate".
Carlos Chagas, 1909 Chagas disease is spread by contact with an infected triatomine bug also called "kissing bug", "benchuca", “vinchuca,” “chinche,” or “barbeiro” Chagas disease was discovered by Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas in 1909 Epidemiological Triad Kissing Bug Trypanosoma cruzi Parasite similar to the one that causes sleeping sickness
Mostly carried by the triatomine bug or "kissing bug"
Found commonly in rural areas of South and Central America where 8-11 million people are infected
Many people who are infected are unaware Chagas Disease in USA The estimated number of infected persons living in the United States is 300,000+

Result of immigration from Latin American countries

Higher rate among large Hispanic populations in the South and West

The first confirmed U.S. case of transmission from a mother to a newborn was recently documented, adding to ongoing concern about this parasitic disease, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The map below details triatomine occurrence by U.S. state.
Eleven different species of triatomine bugs have been found in the southern United States Global Health: Neglected Tropical Diseases Life Cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi Host & Vector Habitat Disease Manifestations The New HIV/AIDS of the Americas? acute and chronic phases - signs and symptoms:
chagoma (Romaña's Sign)
fever
headache
chest/abdominal pain
- many patients are asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms
- trypomastigotes active in blood during acute stage acute stage months or often years pass without symptoms chronic stage transmission 4 - 8 weeks Cardiac disease (20-30%)
heart failure
cardiac arrhythmias
thromboembolism Digestive Disease
(5-10%)
Megacolon
Megoesophagus Diagnosis
Electrocardiograms and echocardiograms
Serological tests Mode of Transmission blood transfusion
organ transplantation
ingestion of food contaminated with parasites
from a mother to her fetus Primary mode of
transmission: Reduviid bug aka "kissing bug" Secondary modes of
transmission Chagas Disease Prevention Healthy People 2020:
Global Health The goal of Healthy People 2020 is to "improve public health and strengthen U.S. national security through global disease detection, response, prevention, and control strategies" (Healthy People 2020, 2011).

Objectives Include:
Reduce the number of cases of malaria reported in the United States.
Reduce the tuberculosis (TB) case rate for foreign-born persons living in the United States
Increase the number of Global Disease Detection (GDD) Regional Centers worldwide to detect and contain emerging health threats.
Increase the number of public health professionals trained by Global Disease Detection (GDD) programs worldwide.
Increase diagnostic testing capacity in host countries and regionally through the Global Disease Detection (GDD) Regional Centers.

(Healthy People 2020, 2011) (Research America, 2013) Impact - Research - Initiative - Control (Research America, 2013) Research The End! (Van Wyhe, 2002) (WHO, 2012) (Wikipedia, 2013) (Pubmed Health, 2012) (Doctors Without Borders, 2012) (CDC, 2013) (CDC, 2013) (MedlinePlus, 2013)
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