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Transcript of 8085
in the YEAR its a MicroProcessor 8-bit ? What do you mean by
8-bit it just simply means that each memory area has length/size of
Also each and every "command" or "data" or even "address" that you give to it......
the 8085 mP "reads, stores, processes" it as a 8 lettered word
it also gives it "256" possible ways to give data input SECOND generation Architecture 8085 Functional
Block diagram 8085 PIN diagram What do these 40-pins consist of ?? 1) Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)
3) Program Counter
4) Instruction Decoder
5) Timing and Control Sections
6) Bus Buffers and Latches
7) Internal Buses and Control lines
8) Several Control Inputs and Outputs
9) Interrupt Control 1) Address Bus
2) Multiplexed Address / Data Bus
3) Control and Status Signals
4) Power Signals & Frequency Signals
5) Externally Initiated Signals
6) Serial I/O Ports 8085 microprocessor IC has with
Dual Inline Package.
Its Dimensions are 164 mm x 222 mm. 40 Pins The Overall Architecture of the 8085 MicroProcessor consists of... 1) Address Bus
Address / Data Bus
3) Control and
4) Power Signals &
5) Externally Initiated
6) Serial I/O
Ports This consists pins from A8 - A15
It is Uni-Directional
It is used to address the Memory locations This consists pins from AD0 - AD7
It serves as Address as well as Data bus
It is Bi-Directional
Mainly Data is stored in this bus
To extract info from the bus it has to be DeMultiplexed ALE (Address Latch Enable)
S1 and S0 VCC
X2 Restart Interrupts
RESET OUT SOD
SID PIN NO.= 29 - 33 PIN
5 8085 Programmable Kit DISPLAY There are 3 different variants of 8085 mP the main difference between these 3 are their "CLOCK SPEED RATE" Clock Speed= 3 MHz 8085A clock speed= 5 MHz 8085AH M8085AH clock speed= 6 MHz APPLICATIONS APPLICATIONS Early Computers TANDY 100 TANDY 200 TRS-80 Model-100 TRS-80 Model-200 One of the very first NoteBook Style Computer
Full QWERTY Keyboard
Battery Powered (AA size) [20 hrs run] clock= 2.4 MHz Specialty = ROM
MODEM (TELCOM) This KIT is basically used for "Educational Purposes" to TRY and TEST various AlGORITHM's that the 8085 mP is capable of doing! A Radiation Hardening(rad-hard) version of 8085 was used in on-board data processors for several NASA and ESA space Physics Missions in the 1990's and early 2000's **TRIVIA** MISSIONS:
CRRES, Polar, FAST, Cluster, HESSI, the Sojourner Mars Rover, and THEMIS. 8085
INSTRUCTION SET * address BUS
* data BUS
* control BUS BUS structure B C
Register Registers While executing an instruction, there is a necessity for the microprocessor to access memory frequently for reading various instruction codes and data stored in the memory.
The interfacing circuit aids inaccessing the memory. Memory Interfacing * Hardware Interrupt
- non maskable
* Software Interrupt Interrupt Control Flags Timing diagram is the display of initiation of read/write and transfer of data operations under
the control of 3-status signals IO/M, S1, and S0. Timing ` * Zero Flag (Z)
* Sign Flag (S)
* Parity Flag (P)
* Carry Flag (CY)
* Auxiliary Carry Flag (AC) A microprocessor is a semi conductor, multipurpose, programmable logic device that reads binary instructions from a storage device called memory, accepts binary data as input and processes data according to the instructions and provides result as output. MICROPROCESSOR A microprocessor can also be viewed as an integrated circuit that contains processing capabilities of large computers. A microprocessor can also be considered as an electronic logic circuit that is capable of performing various computing tasks and making decisions to change the sequence of program execution. A microprocessor can also be considered as the center of any computing device that is expected to perform a logical task. HOW IS A μmP MADE? μP’s are made mostly of an element called silicon. Silicon is rather common in earths crust and is a semiconductor. This means that depending on what materials you add to it, it can conduct when a voltage is applied to it. It is the 'switch that makes a CPU work. Modern μP's literally contain millions transistors. SILICON The first stage in making a CPU is to make the wafers that they are built on. This process begins with the melting of poly silicon, together with minute amounts of electrically active elements such as arsenic, boron, phosphorous or antimony in a quartz crucible.Then this entire mixture is then cooled and the wafer is cut out from it THE SILICON WAFER The wafers are then ground and polished both chemically and mechanically to produce a very flat, mirror like surface.
Wafers may then be heated to help remove any defects. (annealing)
The wafers are then inspected with a laser to find any surface defects. 1. Oxide A layer of oxide is implanted on the wafer. This is most often done by exposing the wafer to steam at very high temperatures
2. Photoresist A layer of organic photoresist is applied. This is like film in a camera
3. Masking A mask is applied and UV light is shown through the gaps. UV light is now used because of its shorter wavelength. A shorter wavelength means that it can pass through a smaller mask. The UV light hardens (fixes) the photoresist.
4. Cleaning The unhardened mask is removed with an organic solvent
5. Etching Hydroflouric (HF) acid is used to etch away the Silicon Oxide. Since HF is inorganic it does not attack the photoresist.
6. Cleaning The remaining photoresist is washed away. The wafer is now ready for doping with another type of silicon. Or for adding contacts. (A) A p-type wafer (silicon doped with Boron) has a epilayer of n-type (silicon doped with Phosphorous or Arsenic)
(B) A mask is used to implant Silicon Dioxide, for the insulator
(C) Acceptor atoms (Boron) are diffused into the window in the Silicon Dioxide
(D) Using another mask additional Silicon Dioxide is grown. and donor atoms (elements like Arsenic with excess electrons) are implanted.
(E) Another mask is used to grow additional Silicon Dioxide. ANother mask is then used to implant evaporated Aluminum or Copper for the contacts. This is a Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT). IN DAILY LIFE FROM AIR-CRAFTS
MOTOR-BIKES FROM PERSONAL COMPUTERS
HAS A BRAIN CALLED We know that our computers use microprocessors to do their work. Smaller and thinner than a dime, these tiny silicon chips contain millions of transistors that work together to help you do everything from write a college report to search the Web for everything under the sky.
We know how they are made, but how do they do all the things they do?
Let's shrink ourselves down and explore the world of microprocessors. ALU This unit performs arithmetic and logic operations.
This unit also preforms rotate operation.
The operations in this unit affect the status register.
The results from the ALU are placed in the accumulator. It is a 8-bit register used to store 8-bit data.
In arithmetic and logic operation, result is store in accumulator. Accumulator It is also known as flags, which consists of flip-flops that are set or reset according to data conditions in the accumulator. Status register It is a 16-bit register containing the address of the next executable instruction.
It can be incremented or reset by the control selection. Program Counter It is a 16-bit register consisting of address of the memory location called stack.
Stack is R/W memory used for temporary storage. Stack Pointer H L It is a pair of 8-bit registers that can be used separately or as a combined pair. They are labeled as H & L.
Data is stored in these registers. When used in pair, 16 bit address can also be stored. Data/Address register This interprets the content of the instruction register and determines exact steps to be followed in executing the entire instruction.
It directs the control section accordingly. Instruction
Decoder This section receives the signals form the instruction decoder to determine the nature of the instruction to be executed.
Timing and control signals are sent to all parts of the microprocessor. Timing & Control Unit It is a group of 16 lines generally identified as A0 to A15.
It is a uni directional bus i.e. data flows in both directions between MPU and peripheral. Address Bus Data bus is a group of 8-bits used to transfer data.
It is a bidirectional bus i.e. data flows in both directions between MPU memory and peripheral. Data Bus Latch is flip-flop used to store one bit of information.
Information is stored into the latch by enabling the buffer. Bus Buffer
Latches Latch is flip-flop used to store one bit of information.
Information is stored into the latch by enabling the buffer. Bus buffer
Shifter Adder Temporary
Register Internal bus ALU Registers Control Unit The Arithmetic and Logic Unit(ALU) is responsible for all arithmetical and logical operations carried out. Registers are primarily used to store data temporarily during the execution of the program. Control Unit provides timing and control signals to the whole system CLK clock x1 x2 Crystal +5V GND Power Supply Interrupt request Interrupt
control INTR Reset Write Read This is an 8-bit register
The first byte of an instruction is stored in this register Internal bus From Storing and Transferring important data
and interfacing the memory
to controlling interrupts & timing clock cycles.. Finally !!!! marking the advent of
of microprocessors.. AND THUS THE HUMBLE 8085 HAS LEFT ITS FOOT PRINT ON THE WORLD Denson Gemmy Aditya Nishant Vinit Christo Rishi Austin THANK
END 8085 Multiplexed Dynamic Device Friendly Efficient Well Organized Accurate