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Russian Empire vs Mughal Empire AP World 2013
Transcript of Russian Empire vs Mughal Empire AP World 2013
The Mughal Empire What both empires had politically: -Both empires had centralized rule demonstrating their efforts to centralize their government under one ruler
-Both had interaction in the West that opened up expansion and more opportunities for their empires.
-They both gained a direct influence from the West. The differences between the two politically The Russians: The Mughals: Thesis Across Eurasia in the Pre-Modern Era (1450-1750), political, economic, social, and cultural factors have shown the differentiation among the Russian empire and the Mughal empire through how they valued foreign trade in terms of economic goals and their social structure; although the Russians made their own artillery and guns, the Mughals purchased their own artillery and guns from Europeans for military aspects. Although there are differences among these empires, both the Russian empire and Mughal empire show similarities demonstrating how they intertwined in terms of how the empires attempt to convert the people to a certain religion through involuntary association. What both empires had economically The differences between the two Economically The Russians: The Mughals: The differences between the two Socially The Russians: The Mughals: What both empires had socially What both empires had Culturally The differences between the two Culturally The Russians: The Mughals: Direct Comparison Statement Direct Comparison Statement The two empires viewed world trade differently because the Russian empire needed it to survive while the Mughals thought of it more as a luxury. Direct Comparison Statement Direct Comparison Statement -absolute monarchy ruled by czar
~Peter the Great (westernize) helps Russia changed their customs and culture by opening up the country to Western influence thus impacting their cultural aspects
~ Catherine II sought to increase the efficiency of the government and brought ideas of the Enlightenment
-Ivan III and Ivan IV expanded from the eastern border of Poland into Western Siberia across the Ural Mountains
-Started by more economic means
-created their own military weapons
-absolutist policies caused centralized rule which strengthened the state
-forced involuntary association stole goods of conquered people
-After the fall of the Russian empire, they became more centralized gradually creating the Soviet Union. -centralized rule under ministries regulating various provinces of the emperor
~The greatest leader of the Mughal dynasty was Akbar who ruled from 1560-1605. He brought Northern and central India under his control, established a bureaucracy, and encouraged cooperation between Hindus and Muslims in India.
~During the peak of the Mughal, the leader was Aurangzeb who promoted Islam and conquered all of India
-Started by conquest/military creation
-Purchased their guns and artillery from the Europeans
-Forced people to pay tax, jiyza
-Decentralized after the fall of the Mughal opening to foreign powers
-India returned to numerous local political organizations -Both government and half of the people were Eastern Orthodox.
-Did not try to make people convert to a religion besides Eastern Orthodox.
-The emperor was claimed ruler of the Orthodox church.
-Attempted to copy Europe
-Architecture became more westernized post Peter the Great.
-St. Basil Cathedral = pre-Peter the Great
-Kremlin Palace = post-Peter the Great -Majority of people were Hindus, but the government highly encouraged islam
-In the beginning of the empire, Akbar encouraged “Divine Faith”, a religion that has a mix of Islamic and Hindu values, but with the emperor as the divine ruler. Later on, the government encouraged Islam than ever before.
-Did not want anything to do with Europe culturally
-No official language
-Mughal art and architecture blended Muslim and Indian styled and material (white marble-India and arches and domes-Muslims)
-Taj Mahal- most well known structure constructed Shah Jahan - Social classes were based on economic status (from highest to lowest roles in empire): the czar, the nobility, and the surfs
~The Russians had no middle class like Spain during the exploration and exploitation of the Americas
- Females could be czars which showed they took on prominent roles in the empire
-Peter the Great allowed women of elite classes to attend public event for the first time
- Conquered peoples were converted to Russian beliefs against their will.
- Lower class people were recruited to the military with promises to rise in social class - social class based on religion (from highest to lowest) : emperor, administrators, Muslims, Hindus, everyone else
- Women have certain authorities if they are associated with the emperor
- Wife and mother of the emperor would be revered.
-Akbar broke Hindu and Muslim traditions regarding the treatment of women.
- Akbar encouraged widows to remarry and outlawed sati (the practice of Hindu women burying them on their husband's funeral pyre.
-Women were allowed to have market days to themselves if they practiced purdah, where they stayed inside their homes and performed arduous tacks. - Based off of productive agricultural economy
~Interact in the West due to Indian Ocean Trade
-Allowed European to created trade stations in their lands
-Peasants were given land in exchange for tax payment
-Relied on trade with Europe for firearms/artillery guns for military aspects The Russians and the Mughals are different socially because Russia's social structure is based more economics while the Mughal's social structure is based more on religion. The Land Based Empires of 1450-1750 Let's explore:
- What are the similarities that these empires share?
- What pre-conditions allowed for the Imperial Expansion of these forces?
- Which Empires lasted longest? Shortest? Why?
- How did these empires interact with the Maritime Empires? What was the nature of that interaction? -Both tried to use involuntary association to convert people to an official religion
-Both had little success in spreading religion to conquered lands and people
-Both had an empire that was multiracial, multilingual, and multicultural, but they had one official religion.
-Both had emperors that claimed themselves as rulers of their religion -Fur Trade = foremost reason for Eastward expansion
~minerals of Siberia
-Conquered other lands to the south for trade routes
~Conquered what is now Georgia and Azerbaijan to trade with Ottoman empire, India, and Iran
-serfs = main workforce of Russia ( Kept the Russian economy focused on agriculture)
-guns manufactured internally, so they were no necessary trade relations with other empires or regions Both empires attempted to convert conquered people to a certain religion through involuntary association, but the both failed in the process. The Russian empire began to expand based on its economic need for trading fur. Even with Siberia's extensive amount of furs, fur would've proven unprofitable without the use of trade between other empires. Therefore, trade was essential for Russia's success. On the other hand, the Mughal empire almost everything they needed was made inside the empire, so they focused more on expanding their empire rather than international trade. However, they did allow European countries to create trade stations in their empire. The Mughals benefited greatly because they could trade with foreign lands. The Mughals didn't have to travel to trade with these lands, and they taxed these stations for creating such trade stations. So the two empires had different outlooks when it came to trade. The Russian empire manufactured their own guns and artillery while the Mughal empire purchased their guns and artillery from the Europeans for military means. With the Russian empire manufacturing their own guns and artillery, it created a more stable and independent government and military force. With the Mughal empire purchasing their guns and artillery from Europe, it allowed them to become more dependent and have close relations with the Europeans, thus creating a fragile economy and military force with the disadvantage of the Europeans being able to revoke the gun supply or restrict it when it came to the Mughal empire. Although both empires utilized guns for military means, the Russian empire was able to survive longer throughout the Pre-Modern Era and the fall of the Mughal empire led to numerous political organizations. Catherine the Great In the Russian Empire, when they took over Siberia, they tried to take the newly conquered lands over culturally as well politically by trying to force them to convert to Christian Orthodox. When the Siberians continued to believe in their traditional indigenous beliefs, the Russians gave up and turned the missionaries into trading posts. Similar to the Russians, the Mughal empire had two events like it. During Akbar's rule, he established the Divine Faith to ease social tensions between the Hindus and Muslims. Few had converted, but it was not as successful as suspected. Also, during Aurangzeb's rule, he abolished Akbar's divine faith and tried to convert the Hindu majority to Islam. Instead, he brought back the Jiyza and taxed the millets, which increased social tensions between the religions greatly and was one of the big reasons for the end of their empire. So when it comes to conversions, the two empires agreed on the same tactic, but were met with little success. Akbar Peter the Great influencing the Russian Westernization by shaving off men's beards and wearing Western clothing. Taj Mahal St. Basil's Cathedral Kremlin Palace -Both empires were very productive in the agriculture, causing a more stable economy
-Both traded with western societies in Europe
-Both took part in gun and artillery trade - Absolute ruler or Monarch that controls almost all aspects of life
- Well defined social class structure where each person knows exactly where they belong
- Women played prominent roles in the empire