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Transcript of Polio
by Dr. Jonas Salk When did the polio vaccine first become available? Two types: How is polio administered? inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). oral polio vaccine (OPV) OPV is given as an oral liquid. IPV given as a shot in the arm or leg. Children : Who should get the vaccine(IPV)? Traveling to countries which have cases of polio
Traveling to countries close to where polio is endemic
If you handle specimens that contain polio.
If you are a healthcare worker treating patients that are close contact to polio. Adults Adults who never been vaccinated The first dose at any time,
The second dose 1 to 2 months later,
The third dose 6 to 12 months after the second. A dose at 2 months
A dose at 4 months
A dose at 6-18 months
A booster dose at 4-6 years The IPV vaccine is safe, no serious reactions to IPV have been documented. How safe is this vaccine? What side effects have been reported with this vaccine? minor reactions where the injection took place (e.g., pain, redness). How effective is this vaccine? IPV (three doses)is very effective in preventing polio. Who should not receive the polio vaccine? if you have a life-threatening allergic reaction to neomycin, streptomycin, or polymyxin B
if you had a severe allergic reaction to a dose of polio vaccine should not get another one.
if you are ill at the time when shot is scheduled should wait until they recover to get vaccination. What treatment was available then and now? There is no cure for polio. caused by a virus that destroys nerve cells (Peel Region Health)
lives in the throat and intestinal tract (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2011) What causes polio? Rarely seen in Canada (Peel Region Health 2010)
Polio can be brought back to Canada through travel activities, by people who have not been properly immunized against polio (Peel Region Health)
The last major polio epidemic in Canada occurred in 1959 (CPHA)
Tens of thousands of Canadians died until the Salk vaccine was introduced (CPHA) How common is polio in Canada? polio outbreaks first appeared in Europe in the 1800's (CPHA) Where in the world did this outbreak occur? •Factors that affect transmission : extent of crowding, levels of hygiene, water quality, and sewage handling facilities
•It is spread from person to person and through contaminated food and water
(WHO) Where did it begin, where did it spread to? 1% of cases resulting in flaccid paralysis
2%-5% of children die
15%-30% of adults die
(University of Washington) How serious is the virus? Poliomyelitis is a viral disease. There are three types of polio virus and many strains of each type. The virus enters through the mouth and multiplies in the throat and gastrointestinal tract, then moves into the bloodstream and is carried to the central nervous system where it replicates and destroys the motor neuron cells. Motor neurons control the muscles for swallowing, circulation, respiration, and the trunk, arms, and legs. What is Polio? PubMed Health 2012 IPV- vaccine OPV- oral © 2012 UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON © 2012 UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON @Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA gov.) (2011) @Public Health Agency of Canada(2012) @Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA gov.) (2011) © 2012 UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON © 2012 UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON @Public Health Agency of Canada (2012) http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/polio
According to MayoClinic polio is transmitted through contaminated
food & water. It enters through the mouth and latches on and hijacks
a host cell and begins to replicate itself. Eventually you will begin to
see symptoms of poliomyelitis. Polio has existed for thousands of years How do you contract polio? When did polio first exist? According to Medicinenet’s records polio can be easily controlled provided proper medical supplies & facilities are present. How did the outbreak first occur? According to Polioeradication.org In the year 1952, 57,800 people died from polio, the disease was finally eliminated from the Americas in 1994, but still persists in Africa & Asia (specifically Afghanistan, Chad, Nigeria and Pakistan) How many people contract this disease yearly? Infectious Agent: Polio (Virus) Reservoir: Contaminated Food/Water or another person Mode of Transmission: Direct, Indirect, Vectors and Vehicles Portal of Exit Portal of Entry Susceptible Host