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PhD Candidature Defence

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Josephine Hong

on 4 November 2016

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Transcript of PhD Candidature Defence

Methodology
Research Background
Novelty of
Research

Research
Findings

Suggestions
and
Recommendations

MHA 120051
MERDU, Faculty of Medicine
University of Malaya
.
.
Research Technique:
Instruments:
Mixed Model Design: Quantitative and Qualitative data
Extrinsic Motivated Behaviour Inventory (EMB)
Metacognitive Skills Inventory (MSI)
Interviews
End of Year Examination Results
Four dimensions emerged from literature review:
Deci, Ryan, & Williams (1996), Tanaka et al. (2009), Kusurkar (2012),
Dias et al. (2012), Hurwitz et al. (2013), Luqman (2013)
Research Findings
The Alignment of
Extrinsic Motivated Behaviour and Metacognitive Skills
Among MBBS Students

PhD Candidature Defence
HONG WEI-HAN
Research Methodology
Is there a significant difference between medical students
identified for the four dimensions of extrinsic motivated behaviour
in their year end examination results among

i) students from the old MBBS curriculum
ii) students from the new MBBS curriculum
Is there a significant difference between medical students identified for the two dimensions of metacognitive skills in their year end examination results among

i) students from the old MBBS curriculum
ii) students from the new MBBS curriculum

Research Question 2
Novelty of the Research
J. H. Flavell (1979), Sternberg (1985),
Graber, Gordon, & Franklin (2002), Croskerry (2003)
Rationale of the Study
Problem Statement
Lack
alignment

between extrinsic motivated behaviour and metacognitive skills may result in underperformance
Hutchinson (2003), Zuger (2004)
Mcloughlin (2009), Dahlin et al. (2012)
(Alireza et al., 2012; Cheng & Cheng, 2012; Tanaka et al., 2009; Vansteenkiste et al., 2006)
My PhD Journey This Far...
Credits to supervisors & great cheerleaders
Research Question 1
Qualitative Data
External regulation students named their parents as the primary factor in choosing the course;

"
My parents
..my parents want one of the children to be a doctor. I am the youngest so...
I just follow the flow, as what my parents wanted.
.. it was not a very nice experience... because I failed my foundation.
"
(Student 7, External Regulation, New Curriculum, 16/07/2014)

Integrated regulation students shows distinct response and indicated that they chose medicine because of the inspiration of one-self

"Well I wanted to be a doctor.

I myself wanted medicine.
I wanted to be a doctor since so long ago so yeah, it is entirely me. I have met many doctors before, some doctors are very cool, some very nice. They make you feel better, feel so happy after u see that kind of doctor.
I want to be that kind of doctor that comforts my patients. It was my inspiration.

(Student 2, Integrated Regulation, Old Curriculum, 07/10/2013)
Qualitative Data
Insights of Metacognitive skills revealed during interviews:
Research Question 3
What is the relationship (if any) between extrinsic motivated behaviour and metacognitive skills of the medical students in the

i) old MBBS curriculum
ii) new MBBS curriculum

Qualitative Data
"..the clinical part. I like it because we are not just sitting there. You can practice what you learn. They are very much related to what we learnt, I find it very useful if we have practicing time. We can bind what we learn"

(Student 6, Introjected Regulation, High Metacognitive Skills, New Curriculum, 16/07/2014)

"...the clinical days. I enjoyed the site visits.. I remember there was this doctor... a radiologist. He was so professional, I find that it lead us in a way and it is like you can see yourself in the future"

(Student 9, Integrated Regulation, High Metacognitive Skills, New Curriculum, 21/07/2014)
What are the interactions between extrinsic motivated behavior and metacognitive skills with their year end result among

i) the medical students in the old MBBS curriculum
ii) the medical students in the new MBBS curriculum

Research Question 4
How is the alignment of Extrinsic Motivated Behaviour and Metacognitive Skills for the old and new MBBS students?
Research Question 5
MANOVA
Qualitative Findings
Medical students' alignment of EMB and MSI in the new MBBS curriculum indicated greater physical, cognitive and affective interactions
...the clinical days. I enjoyed the site visits.. I remember there was this doctor... a radiologist. He was so professional, I find that it lead us in a way and it is like you can see yourself in the future
(Student 9, Integrated Regulation, High Metacognitive Skills, New Curriculum, 21/07/2014)
.. our curriculum is more structured. We have blocks and I would say it is more systematic.. if we study anatomy then it's very focused on anatomy. It is more focused... I think this curriculum is more structured, we have an idea what we are going to go through.
(Student 2, Introjected Regulation, High Metacognitive Level, New Curriculum, 17/07/2014)
Cohort study for a similar research
Similar study involving repeating students only
SUGGESTIONS
& RECOMMENDATIONS
Medical students choose without knowing their actual aim in becoming doctors; which leads to
dissatisfaction

and
demotivation

Test batteries (MCAT, BMAT, IQ test, secondary school grades) appears
inadequate

to select the best medical students

Malfunction
, eventually
leads to attrition
from medical schools or
incompetent medical practitioners.


(i) External Regulation
(ii) Introjected Regulation
(iii) Identified Regulation
(iv) Integrated Regulation
Extrinsic Motivated Behaviour
and
Metacognitive Skills
Extrinsic motivated behaviour shift to intrinsic motivated behaviour, internalises and matures with age
Extrinsic motivation can overshadow intrinsic motivation and affects performance
Extrinsic
Motivated
Behaviour

Motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts
Metacognitive
Skills

higher order thinking
,
ability to
manage
information, store,
search,

retrieve
information

plan, monitor
and
evaluate

Dimensions of
Metacognitive Skills
(emerging from literature review):

i) Metacognitive Knowledge
ii) Metacognitive Regulation

Metacognitive skills are
essential
,

A doctor make real decisions
at the front line,
where limited resources and time constraints apply
Aligned Medical Students Make

good practitioners

Alignment

of the extrinsic motivated behaviour and metacognitive skills - have not been studied
The level of extrinsic motivation in medical students have an effect on examination performance

Higher degree of extrinsic motivated behaviour show higher metacognitive skills
One-way ANOVA
t
-test
"I realised that I had to go online to find for a lot of information, new techniques of treatment."
(Student 2, High Level Metacognitive Skills, Old Curriculum, 07/10/2013)
"
I did constant revision. It really helps a lot, much better than before and there is no need to push everything to the end to one-shot especially during the study week."
(Student 5, High Metacognitive Level, New Curriculum, 18/07/2014)
Pearson
Correlation
Old MBBS Curriculum
New MBBS Curriculum
Two-way
ANOVA
Alignment
Alignment
Better ALIGNMENT among New MBBS Curriculum students
Novelty of The Research
The
alignment
of the two domains; Extrinsic Motivated Behaviour and Metacognitive Skills
affects the achievement
of medical students

Students in the new MBBS Curriculum with
clinical skills introduced at an earlier stage
has
better alignment
of Extrinsic Motivated Behaviour and Metacognitive Skills

EMB and MSI can be used as a
tool
for
selecting medical students
How did the Research contributed to the
Existing Literature?
EMB
MSI
Clinical Years
Stage 3A
Stage 3B
Stage 2
1
2
3
Further development of EMB
and MSI as a selection tool
Full transcript